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Double-nozzled terracotta oil lamp found in Samaria The following are the main external parts of a terra-cotta lamp: Shoulder Pouring hole The hole through which fuel is put inside the fuel chamber. The width ranges from 0. There may be single or multiple holes. Wick hole, and the nozzle. It may be just an opening in the body of the lamp, or an elongated nozzle. In some specific types of lamps, there is a groove on the superior aspect of the nozzle that runs along to the pouring hole to re-collect the oozing oil from the wick. Handle Lamps can come with or without a handle. The handle can come in different shapes. The most common is a ring shaped for the forefinger surmounted by a palmette , on which the thumb is pressed to stabilize the lamp. Other handles can be crescent shaped, triangular, or semi-ovalular. The handleless lamps usually have an elongated nozzle, and sometimes have a lug rising diagonally from the periphery. The lug may act as a small handle where the thumb rests. Some lugs are pierced. It was speculated that pierced lugs were used to place a pen or straw, called the acus or festuca, with which the wick was trimmed. Others think that the pierced lugs were used to hang the lamp with a metal hook when not in use. Lamp typological categories[ edit ] Typologically, lamps of the Ancient Mediterranean can be divided into seven major categories: This category includes Greek and Egyptian lamps that date before the 3rd century BC. They are characterized by simple, little or no decoration, and a wide pour hole, a lack of handles, and a pierced or unpierced lug. Pierced lugs occurred briefly between 4th and 3rd century BC. Unpierced lugs continued until the 1st century BC. With spiral, scroll-like ornaments volutes extending from their nozzles, these lamps were predominantly produced in Italy during the Early Roman period. They have a wide discus, a narrow shoulder and no handle, elaborate imagery and artistic finishing, and a wide range of patterns of decoration. These are late Roman. The shoulder is wider and the discus is smaller with fewer decorations. These lamps have handles and short plain nozzles, and less artistic finishing. This is a regional style lamp exclusively produced in Egypt and found in the regions around it, between c. The frog Heqet is an Egyptian fertility symbol. African Red Slip lamps were made in North Africa, but widely exported, and decorated in a red slip. They date from the 2nd to the 7th century AD and comprise a wide variety of shapes including a flat, heavily decorated shoulder with a small and relatively shallow discus. Their decoration is either non-religious, Christian or Jewish. Grooves run from the nozzle back to the pouring hole, it is hypothesized[ by whom? These lamps often have more than one pour-hole. Slipper lamps are oval-shaped and found mainly in the Levant. They were produced between the 3rd to 9th centuries AD. Decorations include vine scrolls, palm wreaths, and Greek letters. Also called Firmalampen from German , these are universal in distribution and simple in appearance. They have a channeled nozzle, plain discus, and 2 or 3 bumps on the shoulder. Initially made in factories in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, they were exported to all Roman provinces. The vast majority were stamped on the bottom to identify the manufacturer. While fire was often described as being destructive, light was given a positive spiritual meaning. The oil lamp and its light were important household items, and this may explain their symbolism. Oil lamps were used for many spiritual rituals. The oil lamp and its light also became important ritualistic articles with the further development of Jewish culture and its religion. This teaching corrects you and trains you to follow the path to life. During the cleansing of the Second Temple in Jerusalem after its looting, the lamp was supposed to burn continuously, forever, but there was only oil enough for one day, and no more oil would be available for eight days. Miraculously, however, the oil expected to last for only one day burnt for eight full days instead. Oil lamp burning before the icon of St. This story was told by Jesus: They took their lamps with them. Five of the bridesmaids were foolish, and five were wise. The foolish bridesmaids took their lamps with them, but they did not take extra oil for the lamps. The wise bridesmaids took their lamps and more oil in jars. When the bridegroom was very late, the bridesmaids could not keep their eyes open, and they all fell asleep. Come and meet him! They made their lamps ready. The oil in our lamps is all gone. The oil we have might not be enough for all of us. But go to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves. While they were gone, the bridegroom came. The bridesmaids who were ready went in with the bridegroom to the wedding feast. Then the door was closed and locked. Later, the other bridesmaids came. Open the door to let us in. John the Baptist ] was a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! Orthodox Christians will also use oil lamps in their homes to illuminate their icon corner. Traditionally, the sanctuary lamp in an Orthodox church is an oil lamp. It is lit by the bishop when the church is consecrated , and ideally it should burn perpetually thereafter. The oil burned in all of these lamps is traditionally olive oil. The cross over the door and the flame before the icons are believed to confer the Risen Lord's protection on the household. In Eastern Christianity it is common to hang decorated ostrich eggs on the chains holding the oil lamps. The parable of His light is, as it were, that of a niche containing a lamp; the lamp is [enclosed] in glass, the glass [shining] like a radiant star: God guides unto His light him that wills [to be guided]; and [to this end] God propounds parables unto men, since God [alone] has full knowledge of all things". Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Blessing at a Durga puja celebration "Mankind errs here By folly, darkening knowledge. But, for whom That darkness of the soul is chased by Light of the Lord , Splendid and clear shines manifest the Truth As if a Sun of Wisdom sprang to shed Its beams of dawn. Him mediating still, Him seeking, with Him blended, stayed on Him, The souls illuminated take that road Which hath no turning back—their sins flung off By strength of faith. Who will, may have this Light; Who hath it, sees. Generally the lamps used in temples are circular with places for five wicks. They are made of metal and either suspended on a chain or screwed onto a pedestal. There will usually be at least one lamp in each shrine, and the main shrine may contain several. Usually only one wick is lit, with all five burning only on festive occasions. The oil lamp is used in the Hindu ritual of Aarti. In the home shrine, the style of lamp is usually different, containing only one wick. There is usually a piece of metal that forms the back of the lamp, which has a picture of a Hindu deity embossed on it. In many houses, the lamp burns all day, but in other homes, it is lit at sundown. The lamp in the home shrine is supposed to be lit before any other lights are turned on at night. A hand-held oil lamp or incense sticks lit from the lamp are also used during the Hindu puja ceremony. In the North of India, a five-wick lamp is used, usually fueled with ghee. On special occasions, various other lamps may be used for puja, the most elaborate having several tiers of wicks. In South India , there are a few types of oil lamps that are common in temples and traditional rituals, some of the smaller ones are used for offerings as well: They are usually small and have only one wick. Nilavilakku , a tall brass or bronze lamp on a stand where the wicks are placed at a certain height. Paavai vilakku, a brass or bronze lamp in the form of a lady holding a vessel with her hands. This type of lamp comes in different sizes, from very small to almost life-size. There are also large stone versions of this lamp in Hindu temples and shrines of Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and Kerala , especially at the base of columns and flanking the entrance of temples.
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