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How To Make The Perfect Jameson Irish Coffee
Early origins[ edit ] The word 'whiskey' or whisky comes from the Irish or 'Gaelic' uisce beatha, meaning water of life. Irish whiskey was one of the earliest distilled drinks in Europe, arising around the 12th century see Distilled beverage. It is believed that Irish monks brought the technique of distilling perfumes back to Ireland from their travels to the Mediterranean countries around A. The Irish then modified this technique to obtain a drinkable spirit. Although termed "whiskey", the spirit produced during this period would have differed from what we currently recognise as whiskey. The uisce beatha or whiskey produced in historical times would not have been aged, and was often flavoured with aromatic herbs such as mint, thyme or anise. Although known to have occurred for hundreds of years, records of whiskey production in Ireland can be difficult to come by, particularly in the earlier years when production was unregulated. Even in later years, as production was frequently illicit, official records bear little reflection of reality. This Act also made it technically illegal for anyone other than "the peers, gentlemen and freemen of larger towns" to distil spirits without a licence from the Lord Deputy. However, the current Bushmills distillery and company was not registered to trade until  which allows the Kilbeggan Distillery formerly Locke's Distillery , founded by the McManus family in Kilbeggan, County Westmeath, which has been licensed and distilling since not counting the period between and to lay claim to the title of the oldest licensed distillery in Ireland. Although Crown control now extended far beyond the Pale, there is limited official record of whiskey distillation during this period. One reason for this, is that until registration was done on a voluntary basis. In the 18th century, demand for whiskey in Ireland grew significantly, driven both by strong population growth, and by displacing the demand for imported spirits. This was enacted in and significantly reformed how the taxes payable on whiskey production were calculated. However, this Act removed the potential for under-reporting by making taxes payable on a distillery's potential output based on the capacity of its pot stills , rather than its actual, or reported output. In , when the Act was introduced, there were 1, registered distilleries in Ireland, however, by , this number had fallen to , and by , there were just 32 licensed distilleries in operation. Although no longer in use, it still remains in place inside the old distillery building. Previously, duty was charged monthly, based on still output, meaning that distilleries paid tax on whiskey before it was sold. In , two years before the reforms, there were 32 licensed distilleries in Ireland. However, just four years after the reforms, this number had risen to 82 in , while by it had reached 93, a 19th-century peak. Prior to the Excise Act of , the largest pot still in Ireland had a capacity of just gallons. However, by , just two years later, the Midleton Distillery would open with a 31,gallon pot still, which remains the largest ever built;  the largest pot stills currently in operation in the world as of , located next door in the New Midleton Distillery , are roughly half this size, at 16, gallons 75, litres. In the early s, Ireland was the largest spirit market in the United Kingdom, with demand for spirit exceeding that even of more populous England. By , Dublin boasted the five largest licensed distilleries in the country. Although these figures are likely inflated, they give an indication of the esteem in which Dublin whiskey was held, even by Scottish distillers. The chief output of these distilleries, known as single or " pure pot still " whiskey, was made from a mix of malted and unmalted barley, and solely distilled in pot stills. The style, having initially emerged as a means of avoiding a tax on malt, endured although the tax had been later repealed. Whereas, Irish whiskey, then the world's most popular whiskey, would enter a century of decline, with all of Dublin's great distilleries shutting their doors. So much so, that by the late 20th century, the once popular pure pot still whiskey had almost disappeared entirely, with only two specialist bottlings, Green Spot and Redbreast remaining in existence. There were a number of factors, both internal and external, which lead to this decline. However, one of the main turning points was the patenting in of the Coffey still by Aeneas Coffey. Ironically, Coffey was both the former Inspector General of Excise in Ireland, and subsequently, after leaving the excise service, an Irish distiller himself. Although similar continuous stills had been proposed in the past, including by other Irish distillers themselves, the Coffey still was the most effective, and soon entered widespread use. This made them cheaper to operate, as they required less fuel, and more efficient to run, producing a continuous, rapid output of spirit. In addition, because technically, continuous distillation entails the conduct of a series of distillation runs in sequence internally within a self-contained unit rather than the conduct of a single distillation within a pot still, Coffey stills were capable of producing a far higher strength output than pot stills. However, this advantage also came with a downside. As a consequence of increasing the alcohol concentration in the product, Coffey stills removed some of the other volatile components responsible for flavour. Ireland was the initial testing ground for the Coffey still, with Coffey showcasing them in his own distillery and offering them to other Irish distillers. Although there were seven in operation in Ireland by ,  their use did not become widespread amongst the larger distilleries. In particular, the big four Dublin distillers, proud of their existing produce, scoffed at its use, questioning if its product, grain whiskey , which they termed neutral or silent i. The adoption of the Coffey still in Scotland was indirectly assisted by Ireland's Great Famine of the s, which lead to the repealing of the Corn Laws , which between and had restricted the import of cheaper foreign grain into Britain and Ireland. After the laws were repealed in , cheap American corn could be imported and used to produce neutral spirit in Coffey stills. This spirit, though lacking in taste, could then be blended with traditional pot still derived spirit to produce, a cheaper, " blended whiskey ". This blended whiskey, which was less intense in taste than pure pot still, was to prove popular in Britain, capturing much market share from Irish pure pot still whiskey. Despite changing tastes and falling market share, the adoption of Coffey stills was stubbornly resisted by Irish distillers for many years, with some arguing for restrictions on their use. For instance, in , the big Dublin distillers jointly published a pamphlet entitled "Truths about Whisky," in which they referred to the output of Coffey stills as "Good, bad or indifferent; but it cannot be whiskey, and it ought not to be sold under that name". Whereas, Coffey stills are permissible in the production of Armagnac. An industry in decline[ edit ] In addition to the introduction of blended whiskey, and the Irish distillers' failure to account for its appeal to changing tastes, there were a number of additional issues which placed further pressure on the Irish distillers: Together, these factors greatly hampered exports and forced many distilleries into economic difficulties and out of business, and by the early 20th century, Scotland had surpassed Ireland to become the World's largest whiskey producer. When Alfred Barnard , a British historian, published his account of the distilleries of Britain and Ireland in , there were 28 distilleries in operation in Ireland. By the s, there was only a handful of these remaining in operation, and in , three of these John Jameson, Powers, and Cork Distilleries Company chose to amalgamate their operations under the name of Irish Distillers and to close their existing facilities and concentrate their operations in a new purpose-built facility to be constructed beside the Old Midleton Distillery in Co. In , these were joined by the only other remaining Irish operation, Bushmills, so that by the mids there were only two whiskey distilleries in operation in Ireland, the New Midleton Distillery and the Old Bushmills Distillery , both owned by Irish Distillers, and with only one of these having operated during Irish whiskey's golden years. Resurgence[ edit ] Production reached a nadir at about ,—, cases per annum during this period, down from a height of 12 million cases around In , the Kilbeggan Distillery , which had closed in , reopened, bringing the number of operating distilleries up to four. By August , this figure had grown to eighteen, with at least sixteen more in the planning stages.
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