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Ancient era[ edit ] Bronze wine container from the 9th century BCE. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to , when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. The manufacture of tinplate was long a monopoly of Bohemia ; in Andrew Yarranton , an English engineer , and Ambrose Crowley brought the method to England where it was improved by ironmasters including Philip Foley. Tinplate boxes first began to be sold from ports in the Bristol Channel in The tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire. Tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the s onwards. Canning[ edit ] magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning. With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appert , the tin canning process was patented by British merchant Peter Durand in He sold his patent in to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, who refined the process and product and set up the world's first commercial canning factory on Southwark Park Road, London. By , they were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy. Robert Yeates, a cutlery and surgical instrument maker of Trafalgar Place West, Hackney Road, Middlesex , UK, devised a claw-ended can opener with a hand-operated tool that haggled its way around the top of metal cans. Paper-based packaging[ edit ] Packing folding cartons of salt. Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to The first corrugated box was produced commercially in in England. Corrugated also called pleated paper received a British patent in and was used as a liner for tall hats. Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in —flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention came about as a result of an accident: Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. These innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality. In , Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been economical for many years: A pill box made from polyethylene in Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use. Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry. Other military packaging must transport materiel , supplies, foods, etc. Packaging problems encountered in World War II led to Military Standard or "mil spec" regulations being applied to packaging, which was then designated "military specification packaging". As a prominent concept in the military, mil spec packaging officially came into being around , due to operations in Iceland experiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging. In most cases, mil spec packaging solutions such as barrier materials, field rations , antistatic bags , and various shipping crates are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements. About half of this market was related to food packaging. Barrier protection — A barrier to oxygen , water vapor , dust, etc. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres  or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile  and safe for the duration of the intended shelf life is a primary function. A barrier is also implemented in cases where segregation of two materials prior to end use is required, as in the case of special paints, glues, medical fluids, etc. At the consumer end, the packaging barrier is broken or measured amounts of material are removed for mixing and subsequent end use. Containment or agglomeration — Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of storage and selling efficiency. For example, a single box of pencils requires less physical handling than single pencils. Liquids , powders , and granular materials need containment. Information transmission — Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle , or dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals , food , medical , and chemical products, some types of information are required by government legislation. Some packages and labels also are used for track and trace purposes. Packages may indicate their construction material with a symbol. Marketing — Packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase a product. Package graphic design and physical design have been important and constantly evolving phenomena for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the package and often to the point of sale display. Most packaging is designed to reflect the brand's message and identity. A single-serving shampoo packet Security — Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter manipulation and they can also have tamper-evident  features indicating that tampering has taken place. Packages can be engineered to help reduce the risks of package pilferage or the theft and resale of products: Some package constructions are more resistant to pilferage than other types, and some have pilfer-indicating seals. Counterfeit consumer goods , unauthorized sales diversion , material substitution and tampering can all be minimized or prevented with such anti-counterfeiting technologies. Packages may include authentication seals and use security printing to help indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit. Packages also can include anti-theft devices such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronic article surveillance  tags that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require specialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of retail loss prevention. Convenience — Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, using, dispensing, reusing, recycling, and ease of disposal Portion control — Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities such as salt can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. It also aids the control of inventory: Packaging types[ edit ] Various types of household packaging for foods Packaging may be of several different types. For example, a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household. Custom packaging is an evolutionary use of modern materials. Thermoforming and vacuum forming allow for expanded capabilities for large trays, displays, and specialty needs. Thermoforming is a method which uses vacuum, heat, and pressure to form the desired material into a shape determined by its mold. This type of packaging is often used by the cosmetic and medical industry. It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents. Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, and may be used to prevent pilferage or to group primary packages together. Tertiary or transit packaging is used for bulk handling , warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers. These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when used to combine smaller packages, or tertiary packaging when used to facilitate some types of distribution, such as to affix a number of cartons on a pallet. Symbols used on packages and labels[ edit ] A bar code on a tin of condensed milk Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized. Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer rights and safety, for example the CE marking or the estimated sign that notes conformance to EU weights and measures accuracy regulations. Examples of environmental and recycling symbols include the recycling symbol , the recycling code which could be a resin identification code , and the "Green Dot". Food packaging may show food contact material symbols. In the European Union , products of animal origin which are intended to be consumed by humans have to carry standard, oval-shaped EC identification and health marks for food safety and quality insurance reasons. Country of Origin Labeling is often used. Some products might use QR codes or similar matrix barcodes. Packaging may have visible registration marks and other printing calibration and troubleshooting cues. These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channel. Each has an essential function: Small parcel carriers often have their own formats. RFID labels for shipping containers are also increasingly used. A Wal-Mart division, Sam's Club , has also moved in this direction and is putting pressure on its suppliers to comply. On transport packages, standardized symbols are also used to communicate handling needs.
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