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DATING: COLLEGE VS. POST-GRAD
These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts from Latin Magister artium; M. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work , or library science in North America , a master's is the terminal degree. Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree M. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree M. These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates. The Doctor of Science degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree from Latin Doctor scientiarum mathematic arum; D. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", and the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate , which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the US, the master's degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master's degree almost disappeared[ citation needed ]. In the second half of the 19th century, however, US universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master's degrees parallelling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by the American model. These are awarded to a wide variety of people, such as artists, musicians, writers, politicians, businesspeople, etc. Recipients of such degrees do not normally use the associated titles or letters, such as "Dr". Non-degree qualifications[ edit ] Postgraduate education can involve studying for qualifications such as postgraduate certificates and postgraduate diplomas. They are sometimes used as steps on the route to a degree, as part of the training for a specific career, or as a qualification in an area of study too narrow to warrant a full degree course. Admission[ edit ] In Argentina, the admission to a Postgraduate program at an Argentine University requires the full completion of any undergraduate course, called in Argentina "carrera de grado" v. Licenciado , Ingeniero or Lawyer degree. The qualifications of 'Licenciado', 'Ingeniero', or the equivalent qualification in Law degrees a graduate from a "carrera de grado" are similar in content, length and skill-set to a joint first and second cycles in the qualification framework of the Bologna Process that is, Bachelor and Master qualifications. Funding[ edit ] While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States OAS , have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Types of postgraduate degrees[ edit ] Programmes are divided into coursework-based and research-based degrees. Coursework programs typically include qualifications such as  Graduate Certificate, six month full-time coursework  Graduate Diploma, twelve month full-time coursework  Masters of Arts, Science or other discipline , twelve to 24 months coursework sometimes including a six-month dissertation like the Australian undergraduate honours degree  Professional Doctorates, which are usually more strenuous and of a longer duration than a master's degree, e. Research degrees generally consist of either Masters or Doctorate programs. In some disciplines it is acceptable to go straight from the undergraduate degree into a Ph. Research master's degrees may be still called an M. Doctorate programs may lead to the award of a Ph. Litt is a higher research degree for exemplary achievement. Admission[ edit ] Generally, the Australian higher education system  follows that of its British counterpart with some notable exceptions. Entrance is decided by merit, entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict; most universities usually require a "Credit" average as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong "Credit" or "Distinction" average is the norm for accepted students. Not all coursework programs require the student to already possess the relevant undergraduate degree, they are intended as "conversion" or professional qualification programs, and merely any relevant undergraduate degree with good grades is required. Entry requirements depend on the subject studied and the individual university. The minimum duration of a Ph. Most of the confusion with Australian postgraduate programmes occurs with the research-based programmes, particularly scientific programmes. Research degrees generally require candidates to have a minimum of a second-class four-year honours undergraduate degree to be considered for admission to a Ph. In science, a British first class honours 3 years is not equivalent to an Australian first class honours 1 year research postgraduate programme that requires a completed an undergraduate pass degree with a high grade-point average. There has been some debate over the acceptance of a three-year honours degree as in the case of graduates from British universities as the equivalent entry requirement to graduate research programmes M. The letters of Honours programmes also added to the confusion. Hons are the letters gained for postgraduate research honours at the University of Queensland. Hons does not indicate that this honours are postgraduate qualification. The difficulty also arises between different universities in Australia—some universities have followed the UK system. Professional programs[ edit ] There are many professional programs such as medical and dental school require a previous bachelors for admission and are considered graduate or Graduate Entry programs even though they culminate in a bachelor's degree. There has also been some confusion over the conversion of the different marking schemes between British, US, and Australian systems for the purpose of assessment for entry to graduate programmes. The Australian grades are divided into four categories: High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, and Pass though many institutions have idiosyncratic grading systems. Assessment and evaluation based on the Australian system is not equivalent to British or US schemes because of the "low-marking" scheme used by Australian universities. Funding[ edit ] The Australian government usually offer full funding fees and a monthly stipend to its citizens and permanent residents who are pursuing research-based higher degrees. There are also highly competitive scholarships for international candidates who intend to pursue research-based programmes. Taught-degree scholarships certain master's degrees, Grad. Degree requirements[ edit ] Requirements for the successful completion of a taught master's programme are that the student pass all the required modules. Some universities require eight taught modules for a one-year programme, twelve modules for a one-and-a-half-year programme, and twelve taught modules plus a thesis or dissertation for a two-year programme. The academic year for an Australian postgraduate programme is typically two semesters eight months of study. Requirements for research-based programmes vary among universities. Generally, however, a student is not required to take taught modules as part of their candidacy. It is now common that first-year Ph. In such cases, an alternative degree will be awarded for their previous work, usually an M. Generally, in order to be accepted, the candidate must have above average grades and it is highly recommended to be initiated on scientific research through government programs on undergraduate areas, as a complement to usual coursework. Funding[ edit ] The competition for public universities is very large, as they are the most prestigious and respected universities in Brazil. Funding, similar to wages, is available but is usually granted by public agencies linked to the university in question i. Degree requirements[ edit ] There are two types of postgraduate ; lato sensu Latin for "in broad sense" , which generally means a specialization course in one area of study, mostly addressed to professional practice, and stricto sensu Latin for "in narrow sense" , which means a Master of Science or Doctorate , encompassing broader and profound activities of scientific research.
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