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Before Darwin[ edit ] The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system. The word "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo. Darwin[ edit ] The possibility of linking humans with earlier apes by descent became clear only after with the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species , in which he argued for the idea of the evolution of new species from earlier ones. Darwin's book did not address the question of human evolution, saying only that "Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Huxley argued for human evolution from apes by illustrating many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes, and did so particularly in his book Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. However, many of Darwin's early supporters such as Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Lyell did not initially agree that the origin of the mental capacities and the moral sensibilities of humans could be explained by natural selection , though this later changed. Darwin applied the theory of evolution and sexual selection to humans when he published The Descent of Man in Neanderthal remains were discovered in a limestone quarry in , three years before the publication of On the Origin of Species, and Neanderthal fossils had been discovered in Gibraltar even earlier, but it was originally claimed that these were human remains of a creature suffering some kind of illness. The child's remains were a remarkably well-preserved tiny skull and an endocast of the brain. Also, the specimen showed short canine teeth , and the position of the foramen magnum the hole in the skull where the spine enters was evidence of bipedal locomotion. All of these traits convinced Dart that the Taung Child was a bipedal human ancestor, a transitional form between apes and humans. During the s and s, hundreds of fossils were found in East Africa in the regions of the Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana. The driving force of these searches was the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakey , and later their son Richard and daughter-in-law Meave —all successful and world-renowned fossil hunters and paleoanthropologists. From the fossil beds of Olduvai and Lake Turkana they amassed specimens of the early hominins: These finds cemented Africa as the cradle of humankind. In the late s and the s, Ethiopia emerged as the new hot spot of paleoanthropology after "Lucy" , the most complete fossil member of the species Australopithecus afarensis , was found in by Donald Johanson near Hadar in the desertic Afar Triangle region of northern Ethiopia. Although the specimen had a small brain, the pelvis and leg bones were almost identical in function to those of modern humans, showing with certainty that these hominins had walked erect. White in the s, including Ardipithecus ramidus and Ardipithecus kadabba. The skeletal anatomy combines primitive features known from australopithecines with features known from early hominins. The individuals show signs of having been deliberately disposed of within the cave near the time of death. The fossils have not yet been dated. By constructing a calibration curve of the ID of species' pairs with known divergence times in the fossil record, the data could be used as a molecular clock to estimate the times of divergence of pairs with poorer or unknown fossil records. In their seminal paper in Science , Sarich and Wilson estimated the divergence time of humans and apes as four to five million years ago,  at a time when standard interpretations of the fossil record gave this divergence as at least 10 to as much as 30 million years. Subsequent fossil discoveries, notably "Lucy", and reinterpretation of older fossil materials, notably Ramapithecus , showed the younger estimates to be correct and validated the albumin method. On the basis of a separation from the orangutan between 10 and 20 million years ago, earlier studies of the molecular clock suggested that there were about 76 mutations per generation that were not inherited by human children from their parents; this evidence supported the divergence time between hominins and chimps noted above. However, a study in Iceland of 78 children and their parents suggests a mutation rate of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum extends the separation between humans and chimps to an earlier period greater than 7 million years ago Ma. Additional research with offspring of wild chimp populations in 8 locations suggests that chimps reproduce at age And these data suggest that Ardipithecus 4. Furthermore, analysis of the two species' genes in provides evidence that after human ancestors had started to diverge from chimpanzees, interspecies mating between "proto-human" and "proto-chimps" nonetheless occurred regularly enough to change certain genes in the new gene pool: A new comparison of the human and chimp genomes suggests that after the two lineages separated, they may have begun interbreeding A principal finding is that the X chromosomes of humans and chimps appear to have diverged about 1. There were in fact two splits between the human and chimp lineages, with the first being followed by interbreeding between the two populations and then a second split. The suggestion of a hybridization has startled paleoanthropologists , who nonetheless are treating the new genetic data seriously. In , Meave Leakey discovered Australopithecus anamensis. The find was overshadowed by Tim D. White's discovery of Ardipithecus ramidus, which pushed back the fossil record to 4. In , Martin Pickford and Brigitte Senut discovered, in the Tugen Hills of Kenya , a 6-million-year-old bipedal hominin which they named Orrorin tugenensis. And in , a team led by Michel Brunet discovered the skull of Sahelanthropus tchadensis which was dated as 7. Human dispersal[ edit ] A global mapping model of human migration, based from divergence of the mitochondrial DNA which indicates the matrilineage. A "trellis" as Milford H. Wolpoff called it that emphasizes back-and-forth gene flow among geographic regions. Early human migrations , Recent African origin of modern humans , Multiregional origin of modern humans , and Early hominids in Southeast Asia Anthropologists in the s were divided regarding some details of reproductive barriers and migratory dispersals of the genus Homo. Subsequently, genetics has been used to investigate and resolve these issues. According to the Sahara pump theory evidence suggests that genus Homo have migrated out of Africa at least three and possibly four times e. Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis and two or three times for Homo sapiens. Recent evidence suggests these dispersals are closely related to fluctuating periods of climate change. This is earlier than the previous earliest finding of genus Homo at Dmanisi , in Georgia , dating to 1. Although controversial, tools found at a Chinese cave strengthen the case that humans used tools as far back as 2. Dispersal of modern Homo sapiens[ edit ] Up until the genetic evidence became available there were two dominant models for the dispersal of modern humans. The multiregional hypothesis proposed that the genus Homo contained only a single interconnected population as it does today not separate species , and that its evolution took place worldwide continuously over the last couple of million years. This model was proposed in by Milford H. This model has been developed by Chris B. Stringer and Peter Andrews.
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