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The large flat expanse was a base for Herod's Temple, in the center. The view is from outside the Eastern Wall of the Temple Mount. The Temple Mount forms the northern portion of a very narrow spur of hill that slopes sharply downward from north to south. This artificial expansion resulted in a large flat expanse which today forms the eastern section of the Old City of Jerusalem. The southern section of the western flank is revealed and contains what is known as the Western Wall. The retaining walls on these two sides descend many meters below ground level. A northern portion of the western wall may be seen from within the Western Wall Tunnel , which was excavated through buildings adjacent to the platform. On the southern and eastern sides the walls are visible almost to their full height. The platform itself is separated from the rest of the Old City by the Tyropoeon Valley, though this once deep valley is now largely hidden beneath later deposits, and is imperceptible in places. Religious significance of Jerusalem The temple mount has historical and religious significance for all three of the major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It has particular religious significance for Judaism and Islam, and the competing claims of these faith communities has made it one of the most contested religious sites in the world. Temple in Jerusalem The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism , which regards it as the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, and is the place Jews turn towards during prayer. Due to its extreme sanctity, many Jews will not walk on the Mount itself, to avoid unintentionally entering the area where the Holy of Holies stood, since according to Rabbinical law, some aspect of the divine presence is still present at the site. According to the rabbinic sages whose debates produced the Talmud , it was from here the world expanded into its present form and where God gathered the dust used to create the first human, Adam. The " land of Moriah " Hebrew: Modern scholarship tends to regard them as distinct see Moriah. Presumed to be The Foundation Stone, or a large part of it Jewish connection and veneration to the site arguably stems from the fact that it contains the Foundation Stone which, according to the rabbis of the Talmud , was the spot from where the world was created and expanded into its current form. An early Jewish text, the Genesis Rabba , states that this site is one of three about which the nations of the world cannot taunt Israel and say "you have stolen them," since it was purchased "for its full price" by David. According to the Bible the site should function as the center of all national life—a governmental, judicial and religious center. In the 2nd century, the site was used for a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus. It was redeveloped following the Arab conquest. A number of vocal Jewish groups now advocate building the Third Holy Temple without delay in order to bring to pass God's "end-time prophetic plans for Israel and the entire world. In the New Testament , Herod's Temple was the site of several events in the life of Jesus , and Christian loyalty to the site as a focal point remained long after his death. It was to this end, proof of a biblical prophecy fulfilled and of Christianity's victory over Judaism with the New Covenant ,  that early Christian pilgrims also visited the site. The Arabs conquered the city from the Byzantine Empire which had retaken it in The Byzantine ban on the Jews was lifted and they were allowed to live inside the city and visit the places of worship. Christian pilgrims were able to come and experience the Temple Mount area. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem in and the Dome of the Rock was given to the Augustinians , who turned it into a church, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque became the royal palace of Baldwin I of Jerusalem in The Knights Templar , who believed the Dome of the Rock was the site of the Solomon's Temple , gave it the name " Templum Domini " and set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque adjacent to the Dome for much of the 12th century. The New Testament recounts a story of a Samaritan woman asking Jesus about the appropriate place to worship, Jerusalem or the Samaritan holy place at Mount Gerizim , to which Jesus replies, Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and in truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. Jerusalem in Islam Almost immediately after the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in CE, Caliph 'Omar ibn al Khatab , disgusted by the filth covering the site, had it thoroughly cleaned,  and granted Jews access to the site. Revered as the Noble Sanctuary, the location of Muhammad 's journey to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven , the site is also associated with Jewish biblical prophets who are also venerated in Islam. The Dome of the Rock currently sits in the middle, occupying or close to the area where the Holy Temple previously stood. Ibn Taymiyyah had also opposed giving any undue religious honors to mosques even that of Jerusalem , to approach or rival in any way the perceived Islamic sanctity of the two most holy mosques within Islam, Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Madina. For a few years in the early stages of Islam, Muhammad instructed his followers to face the Mount during prayer. The site is also important as being the site of the "Farthest Mosque" mentioned in the Quran as the location of Muhammad's miraculous Night Journey to heaven.: Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing. When the people of Quraish did not believe me i. Volume 5, Book 58, Number Archaeological remnants of the Jerusalem Temple Israelite period The hill is believed to have been inhabited since the 4th millennium BCE. Assuming colocation with the biblical Mount Zion , its southern section would have been walled at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, in around BCE, by Canaanites who established a settlement there or in the vicinity named Jebus. Jewish tradition identifies it with Mount Moriah where the binding of Isaac took place. The prophet Gad suggested the area to King David as a fitting place for the erection of an altar to YHWH , since a destroying angel was standing there when God stopped a great plague in Jerusalem. YHWH instructed David to build a sanctuary on the site, outside the city walls on the northern edge of the hill. The building was to replace the Tabernacle , and serve as the Temple of the Israelites in Jerusalem. Persian, Hasmonean and Herodian periods Main article: Much of the Mount's early history is synonymous with events pertaining to the Temple itself. Evidence of a Hasmonean expansion of the Temple Mount has been recovered by archaeologist Leen Ritmeyer. Herod leveled the area by cutting away rock on the northwest side and raising the sloping ground to the south. He achieved this by constructing huge buttress walls and vaults, and filling the necessary sections with earth and rubble. Aelia came from Hadrian's nomen gentile , Aelius , while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus , to whom a temple was built on the site of the former second Jewish temple, the Temple Mount. It was also customary in Roman rites to sacrifice a pig in land purification ceremonies. These three factors, the graven images, the sacrifice of pigs before the altar, and the prohibition of circumcision, are thought to have constituted for non-Hellenized Jews a new abomination of desolation , and thus Bar Kochba launched the Third Jewish Revolt. They mourn and rend their garments, and then depart. The Jews in Palestine were allowed to set up a vassal state under the Sassanid Empire called the Sassanid Jewish Commonwealth which lasted for five years. Jewish rabbis ordered the restart of animal sacrifice for the first time since the time of Second Temple and started to reconstruct the Jewish Temple. Shortly before the Byzantines took the area back five years later in , the Persians gave control to the Christian population, who tore down the partially built Jewish Temple edifice and turned it into a garbage dump,  which is what it was when the Rashidun Caliph Umar took the city in The model can be seen in the Bijbels Museum in Amsterdam In Arabs besieged and captured the city from the Byzantine Empire, which had defeated the Persian forces and their allies, and reconquered the city. There are no contemporary records, but many traditions, about the origin of the main Islamic buildings on the mount. According to Muslim sources, Jews participated in the construction of the haram, laying the groundwork for both the Al-Aqsa and Dome of the Rock mosques. The dome itself was covered in gold in The term "Noble Sanctuary" or "Haram al-Sharif", as it was called later by the Mamluks and Ottomans , refers to the whole area that surrounds that Rock. The mosque and shrine are currently administered by a Waqf an Islamic trust. The various inscriptions on the Dome walls and the artistic decorations imply a symbolic eschatological significance of the structure. After the city's conquest, the Crusading order known as the Knights Templar was granted use of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount. In , once he retook Jerusalem, Saladin removed all traces of Christian worship from the Temple Mount, returning the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque to their original purposes. It remained in Muslim hands thereafter, even during the relatively short periods of Crusader rule following the Sixth Crusade. Mamluk period There are several Mamluk buildings on and around the Haram esplanade. The Mamluks also raised the level of Jerusalem's Central or Tyropoean Valey bordering the Temple Mount from the west by constructing huge substructures, on which they then built on a large scale. The Mamluk-period substructures and over-ground buildings are thus covering much of the Herodian western wall of the Temple Mount. Ottoman period Following the Ottoman conquest of Palestine in , the Ottoman authorities continued the policy of prohibiting non-Muslims from setting foot on the Temple Mount until the early 19th century, when non-Muslims were again permitted to visit the site. Warren secretly[ citation needed ] excavated some tunnels near the Temple Mount walls and was the first one to document their lower courses. Warren also conducted some small scale excavations inside the Temple Mount, by removing rubble that blocked passages leading from the Double Gate chamber. The Israeli Chief Rabbinate also declared a religious holiday on the anniversary, called " Yom Yerushalayim " Jerusalem Day , which became a national holiday to commemorate the reunification of Jerusalem. Many saw the capture of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount as a miraculous liberation of biblical-messianic proportions. Islamic authorities did not disturb Goren when he went to pray on the Mount until, on the Ninth Day of Av , he brought 50 followers and introduced both a shofar , and a portable ark to pray, an innovation which alarmed the Waqf authorities and led to a deterioration of relations between the Muslim authorities and the Israeli government. The site has since been a flash-point between Israel and local Muslims. In June an Australian tried to set fire to Al-Aqsa; on April 11, a Jew hid in the Dome of the Rock and sprayed gunfire, killing 2 Palestinians and wounding 44; in , and groups led by Yoel Lerner conspired to blow up both the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa; on 26 January Waqf guards detected members of B'nei Yehuda, a messianic cult of former gangsters turned mystics based in Lifta , trying to infiltrate the area to blow it up. A tear gas canister was detonated among the female worshippers, which caused events to escalate. On 12 October Palestinian Muslims protested violently the intention of some extremist Jews to lay a cornerstone on the site for a New Temple as a prelude to the destruction of the Muslim mosques. The attempt was blocked by Israeli authorities but demonstrators were widely reported as having stoned Jews at the Western Wall. The Salah Eddin minbar was also restored. He toured the site, together with a Likud party delegation and a large number of Israeli riot police. The visit was seen as a provocative gesture by many Palestinians, who gathered around the site. Demonstrations quickly turned violent, with rubber bullets and tear gas being used. This event is often cited as one of the catalysts of the Second Palestinian Intifada.
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