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History[ edit ] Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe The Spanish language , also called Castilian, is a Romance language that evolved from the dialects of Roman Vulgar Latin spoken in the Iberian peninsula. The first documents written in a language with some features specific of modern Spanish are ascribed to a number of documents from different monasteries in the area of Burgos and La Rioja  in what is now northern Spain. However, Toledo in central Spain, which became the capital of the early Kingdom of Castile during its southward expansion, is where Spanish began to appear in a written form recognizable today. The pre-existing Mozarabic dialect of this region i. The lexical influence of Arabic reached its greatest level during the Christian Reconquista , when the emerging Kingdom of Castile conquered large territories from Moorish rulers particularly in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. These territories, which included the former Taifa of Toledo , had large numbers of Arabic speakers, as well as many who spoke local Romance dialects Mozarabic language that were heavily influenced by Arabic, both influencing Castilian. It's possible that Arabic words and their derivatives had also been priorly brought into Castilian by Mozarab Christians who emigrated northwards from Al Andalus in times of sectarian violence , particularly during the times of Almohad and Almoravid rule in the 12th and 13th centuries. As such, Arabic can be considered to have had a formative influence on the Spanish language. The degree to which the Arabic language percolated through the Iberian Peninsula varied enormously from one area to another and is the subject of academic debate. However, it is generally agreed that Arabic was used among the local elites, Muslims and Christians, and that the prevalent vernacular in many areas was Mozarabic , a continuum of Arabic-influenced local Romance dialects. Only the southern Emirate of Granada in the time of the Nasrid dynasty , which had had a large influx of Arabic speakers as the Reconquista advanced, became totally Arabized, or at least no evidence of a local Romance in the late Middle Ages has been found. Much of the Arabic influence upon Spanish came through the various Arabized Romance dialects that were spoken in areas under Moorish rule, known today by scholars as Mozarabic. This resulted in Spanish often having both Arabic and Latin derived words with the same meaning. The influence of the Arabized Mozarabic and of Arabic itself is more noticeable in the Spanish dialects from regions with a longer history of Moorish domination than those where it was shorter-lived. For this reason, the dialects of the southern half of the country, known collectively as castellano meridional or Southern Castilian, seem collectively to show a higher degree of preference for Arabisms. Northern Spanish dialects tend to prefer Romance synonyms to terms of Arabic origin, such as the Romance calendario vs. Arabic almanaque, hucha vs. Because Canarian and all Latin American dialects are mainly derived from Southern Castilian, Spanish words of Arabic origin are common in most varieties of Modern Spanish. A number of words were also borrowed from Moroccan Arabic principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and 20th centuries, although these are of minor significance. The Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands has also adopted a small number of words from Hassaniya Arabic , principally from Canarian sailors who fish in proximity to the Saharan coast as well as by those Canarians who returned from Western Sahara after the Green March of Lexical influence[ edit ] The influence of Arabic on the Spanish language is fundamentally lexical but its other influences are also briefly examined in this article. The exact number of words of Arabic origin and their derivatives in Spanish is not known, and many words not included on this list are regionalisms: The high point of Arabic word use in Spanish was in late medieval times and has declined since then, but hundreds are still used in normal conversation. A larger majority of these words are nouns, with a number of verbs and adjectives derived directly from these nouns, e. There is also one preposition: There has been little influence on the basic grammatical structure of the language. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used. Rationale for inclusion Due to the large influence of Arabic on Spanish vocabulary, this list is relatively restrictive: This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society. Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Generally, only Spanish root words are listed, derivations including nouns, verbs or adjectives not being included. On the other hand, aceituna olive is included since it derives not from az-zeit but from az-zeituna in Arabic, even though the root of the Arabic word is the same. Aceituno olive tree , on the other hand, would not be included, since it shares the same root as aceituna. For this reason a significant number of verbs and adjectives are excluded from this list. An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word , when the meaning of the derivative has no evident connection with the root word or when it is not clear that one is derived from the other e. Words derived from Mozarabic are not included Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language , unless the Mozarabic word is itself derived from classical or Andalusi Arabic. Words acquired from Berber or Hebrew or other Afro-Asiatic languages are not included. Many of these words will be unfamiliar to many Spanish speakers because their use is restricted to certain regions of Spain or Spanish-speaking countries or they are no longer in regular use. For example, the word for Arabic-derived word for "jewel" alhaja is very common in Mexico whereas in Spain it is restricted to rural areas of the southern half of the country, the standard Spanish term joya being much more common. On the other hand the Arabic derived term for fruit juice zumo is the standard term in Spain whereas it is virtually unknown on Latin America, where the Latin-derived jugo or agua are generally used. The Arabic term alberca in Spain refers to agricultural water deposits, whereas in Mexico it is the common term used for swimming pool. A Ababol to Alguaza [ edit ] ababol: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic az-zamilah "beast of burden. From Arabic as-saniyah "the lifter. From Arabic aS-Siqal, an instrument used for polishing things. From Arabic Muzil as-siqaT "what takes away weaknesses. From Arabic as-Sidaq, dowry in Islamic law. From Arabic as-sumut plural of samt. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Mozarabic ad ihala and originally from Arabic ihala "offering credit. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea. From Andalusi Arabic ad-dirra a noose or cord used to punish those who were guilty of fraud. From Arabic aD-Dibbah "wolverine", which is the old Arabic name for this disease. From Arabic Dukkan bench of rock or wood. From Bedouin Arabic duwwar. From Andalusi Arabic Haduqa. From Arabic adl "trustworthy person. From Arabic aw-washaq "contaminated with water. From Classical Arabic sabbabah. Same origin as Azaquefa. Ornamental loop in Andalusian and Arabic architecture. From Andalusi Arabic Ash-sharakah "loop". From Classical Arabic saraf "commanding height. Alum ; Para rubber tree. It is cultivated as an ornamental in gardens. From Arabic assariyya or assiriyya, ultimately from Latin satureia. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic gumam. From Classical Arabic gulgulan "sesame. To drag, to tow. From Classical Arabic shuqaq. Tuft of hair which falls on either side of the head. From Andalusi Arabic Al Hatruk, "big mouthed". From Classical Arabic alafah "subsistence allowance. Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. From Arabic Ashur, period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given. Andalusian cake made of almonds, nuts, pine nuts , bread, spices and cooked honey. From al Hashu "filling". A type of decorative attachment which is buttoned on clothing. From Andalusi Arabic Alam, decoration in clothes. Two meanings in Spanish with two different etymologies. From Catalan l'ambor, singular of els zambors, derived from Andalusi Arabic Azzambu. Village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights. Steel bar used to close windows. A type of blood-coloured quartz. From Andalusi Arabic, maintaining the definite article al arabi. From Arabic "show" ala? From Arabic al 'arif: A type of grape. Crossbar which divides a window or a door. Obstacle placed to block entry. From Arabic Andalusi Arabic al-arusa. Drug, spice or perfume dealer. From Arabic al attar. Reddish cinnamon coloured, used commonly to describe sorrel-coloured horses. Wall around a fortress, within which cattle were normally kept. Executor of a will.
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