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5 EASY WAYS TO MAKE YOUR LIPS LOOK BIGGER!
Close up of pink lipstick Black lipstick Early history[ edit ] Ancient Sumerian men and women were possibly the first to invent and wear lipstick, about 5, years ago. Egyptians like Cleopatra crushed bugs to create a colour of red on their lips. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were initially made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales. During the Tang Dynasty CE , scented oils were added to them, which gave the mouth an enticing factor. In Australia, Aboriginal girls would paint their mouths red with ochre for puberty rituals. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message Lip colouring started to gain some popularity in 16th-century England. During the time of Queen Elizabeth I bright red lips and a stark white face became fashionable. Only upper class women and male actors wore makeup. It was considered brazen and uncouth to wear makeup. By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain , a French cosmetic company, began to manufacture lipstick. The first commercial lipstick had been invented in , by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and made from deer tallow , castor oil , and beeswax. Carmine dye was extracted from cochineal , scale insects native to Mexico and Central America which live on cactus plants. Cochineal insects produce carminic acid to deter predation by other insects. Mixed with aluminum or calcium salts it makes carmine dye also known as cochineal. Carmine dye was expensive and the look of carmine colored lipstick was considered unnatural and theatrical, so lipstick was frowned upon for everyday wear. Only actors and actresses could get away with wearing lipstick. In , few stage actresses wore lipstick in public. Before the late 19th century, women only applied makeup at home. Bernhardt often applied carmine dye to her lips in public. The mixture gave a natural look and it was more acceptable among women. At that time, lipstick was not sold in screw up metal tube; it was sold in paper tubes, tinted papers, or in small pots. A child with lipstick. By fashionable American women had come to consider lipstick acceptable, though an article in the New York Times advised on the need to apply it cautiously. Women had to slide a tiny lever at the side of the tube with the edge of their fingernail to move the lipstick up to the top of the case,  although lipsticks in push-up metal containers had been available in Europe since As women started to wear lipstick for photographs, photography made lipstick acceptable among women. Lipstick was scarce during that time because some of the essential ingredients of lipstick, petroleum and castor oil , were unavailable.: Another form of lip color, a wax-free, semi-permanent liquid formula, was invented in the s by the Lip-Ink International company. Other companies have imitated the idea, putting out their own versions of long-lasting " lip stain " or "liquid lip colour. Throughout the early 20th century, lipstick came in a limited number of shades. Dark red was one of the most popular shades throughout the 19th and 20th century. Dark red lipstick was popular in the s. Flappers wore lipstick to symbolize their independence. Lipstick was worn around the lips to form a " Cupid's bow ," inspired by actress Clara Bow. She inspired other companies to create a variety of lipstick shades. Teenage girls believed that lipstick was a symbol of womanhood. Adults saw it as an act of rebellion. Many Americans, especially immigrants, did not accept teenage girls wearing lipstick. Books and magazines also warned girls that wearing cosmetics could ruin their chances of popularity and a career. The implication of these articles was that lipstick and rouge were for teen girls who acted very provocatively with men. Teen girls were discouraged from wearing cosmetics for fear that they would be mistaken for "loose" girls or prostitutes. A survey revealed that two-thirds of teenage girls wore lipstick. Later, Max Factor created a popular lipstick color called Strawberry Meringue. Lipstick manufacturers began creating lipsticks in lavender , pale pink , white , and peach. Since parents generally frowned on teen girls wearing red lipstick, some teen girls began wearing pink and peach lipsticks, which became a trend. Girls would apply white lipstick over pink lipstick or place under-eye concealer on their lips. During that time, many lipsticks were either matte, sheer, or slightly shiny. Women who did not wear lipstick were suspected of mental illness or lesbianism. Rocker Marilyn Manson helped popularize dark lipsticks in alternative subcultures. Black lipstick became popular in the late s and into the s. In the s, black lipstick had been worn by actresses starring in horror films. It became popular again due in part to punk and goth subcultures. In the mids, so-called mood lipstick was sold to adults by mainstream cosmetic companies. This type of lipstick changes colors after it is applied, based on changes in skin's pH that supposedly reflect the wearer's mood. They had another resurgence in the very early 21st century, offered by inexpensive as well as more exclusive cosmetic lines, and color changing chemicals also appeared in lip gloss , such as Smashbox O-Gloss, and blush , such as Stila Custom Color Blush. In the s, lipstick colors became semi-matte. Shades of brown were very popular. These shades were inspired by several shows such as "Friends". In the late s and into the 21st century, pearl shades became very popular. Lipsticks were no longer matte or semi-matte, they were shiny and contained several interference pearls. In , bright bold lip colors became trendy again with saturated colors such as hot pink, neon, and orange. These lipsticks follow the general trend where "less is more". Examples of celebrities promoting this trend are Paris Hilton and Gigi Gorgeous. Its most common form comes in a tube, applied with an applicator wand. Lipstick also has many variations including lip balms , glosses, crayons, pencils, liners, and stains. Balms and glosses tend to be more translucent and not as dark or vibrant. Lipsticks may be made from several waxes such as beeswax , ozokerite and candelilla wax. Because of its high melting point , carnauba wax is a key ingredient in terms of strengthening the lipstick. Various oils and fats are used in lipsticks, such as olive oil , mineral oil , cocoa butter , lanolin , and petrolatum. Lead and other trace metals are also found in many lipsticks. It is impossible to know whether these metals are in the lipstick by looking at the ingredient list because they are not an intentional ingredient added, but rather, an unintentional contaminant. These trace metals are naturally occurring and accidentally get taken up with other chemicals that are used in lipstick production. Look for lead acetate, chromium, thimerosal, hydrogenated cottonseed oil, sodium hexametaphosphate on the ingredients list of lipsticks. These chemicals contain trace amounts of naturally occurring metals, such as lead. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing white titanium dioxide and red shades. Both organic and inorganic pigments are employed. Matte lipsticks contain more filling agents like silica but do not have many emollients. Creme lipsticks contain more waxes than oils. Sheer and long lasting lipsticks contain more oil, while long lasting lipsticks also contain silicone oil , which seals the colors to the wearer's lips. Glossy lipstick contains more oil to give a shiny finish to the lips. Shimmery or frost lipstick may contain mica , silica , and synthetic pearl particles, such as bismuth oxychloride , to give them a glittery or shimmering shine. Then heated waxes are added to the mix for texture. Oils and lanolin are added for specific formula requirements. Afterwards, the hot liquid is poured into a metal mold. The mixture is then chilled. Once they have hardened, they are heated in flame for half a second to create a shiny finish and to remove imperfections. The study found that 61 percent of lipsticks contained lead with levels up to 0. The lead levels ranged from 0. This study was done by Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. This study found an average of 1. The maximum lead level found was 7. Lead is not listed as an ingredient in lipstick, but trace amounts can be found in the mineral based additives. Lead is naturally occurring in soil, water, and air. This means that lead can find its way into the raw ingredients used in lipstick color additives. While only trace amounts of lead are ingested from lipstick, lead accumulates in the body, which can lead to lead poisoning. The most common users of lipstick are teens and adult women. A study done by the University of California — Berkley found that women applied lipstick anywhere from two to fourteen times a day.
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