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Street authenticity[ edit ] Mainstream hip hop music authenticates homophobia and sexism in order to celebrate images of violence. Public speculation suggests that rappers fear being considered "soft" and "fake"; therefore, rappers associate themselves with hypermasculine self-portrayals and hostile representations of women. Meanwhile, male artists battle constantly with W. Du Bois ' idea of double consciousness. During the s record executives began to urge hip hop artists to write more violent and offensive lyrics  at the demand of hip hop audiences. Now every kid in America is well-versed in hip hop. She cautions against singling out criticism against rap music while accepting and perpetuating less raw and vulgar expressions of misogyny that permeate American society. She writes that it is "much easier to attack gangsta rap than to confront the culture that produces [the] need [for gangsta rap]. The misogynist lyrics of gangsta rap are hateful indeed, but they do not represent a new trend in Black popular culture, nor do they differ fundamentally from woman hating discourses that are common among White men. The danger of this insight is that it might be read as an apology for Black misogyny. Of particular importance are those aspects of the music that frequently appear in the midst of political debates and media hype. Often, these aspects are scrutinized not with the intent of acquiring greater and more nuanced understandings of the art form, but rather to further one political agenda or produce a nice sound bite. The misogyny in rap music is one such case. Kubrin have identified five common misogynistic themes in rap lyrics: One example of this can be found in videos in which hip-hop artists lounge poolside as a harem of women gyrate around them in bikinis. Popular rap artists such as Eminem and Odd Future have also been criticized for their depictions of violence against women. Women are depicted as femmes fatales , "gold diggers",   and as dishonest about sexual matters. Not the life for me". By examining and coding these music videos, Conrad, Dixon, and Zhang identified eight major themes across the videos: Within materialism, coders recorded high occurrence of materialism when characters were shown purchasing and consuming expensive clothing, jewelry, and cars, as well as living a lavish lifestyle continually throughout the video. This was also coded when characters were shown being successful criminals, outwitting the police and defeating their competitors, and the appearance of a weapon. Within love, coders recorded high occurrence of love when the video made reference to relationships in both the visual and lyrics of the song, including courting individuals, marriage, and relational disagreements. Within expression of culture, coders noted when the videos contained actions representing the culture including toasting, verbal boasting, or playing the dozens. Examples would include civic meetings, barbecues, or calling out for an entire group to mobilize. In their opinion, the prevalence of misogynistic themes in songs were as follows: Of the eighteen songs on his album The Marshall Mathers LP , eleven contain violent and misogynistic lyrics, nine of which referred to killing women. Except for the " good mother " figure, all other women that were mentioned in the sample were portrayed negatively. Moreover, Chicano rappers who discussed sex and sexuality almost always depicted women as objects of domination for men. Women in rap videos are placed in positions of objectification and sexual submission to their male counterparts. The researchers argue that this "suggests that there are important gender differences occurring that prefer men over women". Yet the researchers pointed out that misogyny seems to be less common in rap music than expected and that other music genres, such as rock music , contain more negative images of women according to some studies. Rapper Tim'm West says it's time to start asking questions about rap and hip-hop, "we need to begin to ask why we bought into this industry that overwhelmingly places emphasis and resources and capital on people who promote images that are seen as negative and that do promote stereotypes as opposed to the more positive images," West says. Numerous studies have found a correlation between consumption of misogynistic hip hop music and negative beliefs about women. However, they noted that gangsta rap did not influence men's other attitudes toward women. However, college students who listen to this music are even more likely to say that they find these lyrics to be accurate and acceptable portrayals of romantic and sexual relationships. Guillermo Rebollo-Gil and Amanda Moras mention many critics condemn rap lyrics for promoting violence, hypermasculinity , sexism , and homophobia. According to the textbook Women: Images and Realities, this music sends the message to young adults, especially Black youth that their enemy is Black girls and women, since the music portrays women as selfish, untrustworthy, and as subordinate. Men who listened to rap music held more sexist beliefs than the control group. Women were also more likely to support sexism when rap music was not overtly misogynistic. However, they were less likely to hold sexist beliefs when the lyrics were very misogynistic. People who are exposed to violent and misogynistic rap music are more likely to perceive black men as hostile and sexist. Cole and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, for instance, have expressed concern over the effects of misogyny in hip hop culture on children, stating, "We are concerned because we believe that hip-hop is more misogynist and disrespectful of Black girls and women than other popular music genres. The casual references to rape and other forms of violence and the soft-porn visuals and messages of many rap music videos are seared into the consciousness of young Black boys and girls at an early age. Sexually degrading lyrics were found to be most common in rap music. The survey also suggests that repeated exposure to sexually degrading lyrics may lead girls to expect that they will be treated with disrespect by their partners and that they have to take a submissive role. They examined students aged 18 to 24 years and found that the older the participants were, the less they listened to rap music and that they reacted more negatively to misogynistic lyrics. Nikodym found that in comparing the impact of an objectifying song to a neutral song there was "no significant differences between the two groups on measures of body shame, body surveillance, and depressive symptoms. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of self-objectification, with those listening to the objectifying song reporting higher levels of self- objectification as shown by more statements that in some way said, "I am my body. Julius Bailey identified Kanye West as being "at the forefront of a sexist regime, disguised as black liberation in form of art. Kanye "engages in the process of sublimation vis-a- vis the sexual violation of white women, in order to mitigate his frustration regarding a system that abets the invisibility and exploitation of black males. Bailey continues by saying that we have to question Kanye's sincerity of his messages when he raps at the end of "new Slaves" about threatening to sexually violate the wives of private corporations' owners, by forcing them into intercourse, and by ejaculating semen inside of their mouths and on their clothing. Bailey says that Kanye has to realize that inflicting oppression upon another group of human beings does not mean he is liberated. Benjamin Moore Dupriest said that Lil Wayne, "engages with Rebaka's 'idyllic impulse' of resistance, restitution, transcendence and opposition in discursive ways, despite the controversial subject matter of his lyrics and the representational implications his visual images. His music achieves a certain level of consciousness through the expression of the challenges of black life in the city. Matthew Oware states in "A 'Man's Woman? However, this contradicts and works backwards in the effort of empowering women and women rappers. Oware states that "these contradictory lyrics nullify the positive messages that are conveyed by female rap artists, consequently reproducing and upholding hegemonic, sexist notions of femininity, and serving to undermine and disempower women. An example of this can be heard in Nicki Minaj's "Stupid Hoe," in which the following lyrics are one of the many examples throughout the song and her music: The sample includes 44 songs between and on certain female artists that specifically focus on their lyrics that illustrate female empowerment. What was found was the excessive use of braggadocio as a theme, the emphasis on being attractive, desirable, and having a need for expensive material objects. The students criticized the negative portrayal and sexual objectification of African American women in the video, which showed women in bikinis dancing and simulating various sexual acts, men throwing money at women's genitals, and Nelly swiping a credit card through a woman's buttocks. The business of stereotypes and degrading images", referenced radio host Don Imus who called the Rutgers University women's basketball team "nappy-headed hos" and later blamed his choice of words on hip hop. Rappers "demean and defame black women", Imus claimed, and call them "worse names than I ever did. Minaj has been described as a video vixen - a female model who appears in hip-hop -oriented music videos. Blige began to adopt personas of independent women and use their sexuality as a form of sexual liberation. A will often perform songs along the lines of " Ooouuu " that place her in the male role with the lyrics "I don't have manners for a hoe, I just want the neck and nothing more" and "I ride for my guys, that's the bro code. Keyes has suggested that women in the industry rarely get the opportunity to express empowering messages because in order to enter into rap and hip hop as performers and to compete with male rappers they must follow what Keyes calls "male rules". Similarly, sociologist Patricia Hill Collins has argued that female performers must follow certain rules and even objectify themselves in order to be "accepted within this Black male-controlled universe. They offer that African American women have always been a very vulnerable part of society, and that it is being reflected in gangsta rap music. Bonnette has remarked that female rappers such as Nicki Minaj and Lil' Kim emphasize their femininity and sexuality while also underlining masculine aspects. Male hip hop artists[ edit ] Many male rappers, especially those labeled as Political hip hop artists, have condemned misogyny in hip hop. In "Assata's Song" from his album Sleeping with the Enemy , the artist Paris criticizes misogyny, rapping about how women deserve respect. The track "Crossing the Boundary," from his album Revolutionary Vol. You poor bastards might never know, and it's because women are prouder than men, and every time we've been made slaves, it's only with the help of our women that we have risen up and fought oppression of every single kind. Other rappers, such as Tupac , leave a complex legacy, sometimes playing into misogynistic themes, yet also producing music that affirms the worth of black women, in songs such as " Keep Ya Head Up " and " Dear Mama ". Effects of misogynistic music in daily life[ edit ] In the study, "Implicit and Explicit Consequences of Exposure to Violent and Misogynous Rap Music", researchers Rudman and Lee explored the consequences of rap music on everyday life and how it affected individuals thoughts and actions in regards to black people. With this previous research, Rudman and Lee wanted to provide information on how our actions are primed because of hostile rap music. Rudman and Lee then completed an experiment on 30 men that "tested the assumption that violent and misogynistic rap music would activate automatic Black stereotypes in high and low prejudiced subjects alike Devine, Subjects were exposed to either rap or popular music and their stereotypes regarding Black men were then assessed, both implicitly and explicitly. After listening to the explicit and profane music, the subjects completed the IAT test which resulted in the following: The researchers concluded that, "Thus, exposure to violent and misogynistic rap music had the generalized effect of strengthening the association between Black men and negative attributes e. What Do the Youths Think? Individuals from ages 18—24 spend a majority of their time listening to this type of music, so researchers Gourdine and Lemmons conducted this study and found that it was easier to understand youth's perceptions on misogyny by focusing on their listening habits and age. After conducting a study amongst individuals in an undergraduate college, the researchers revealed that the youth, "who listened to rap and hip hop music less frequently were more likely to have negative perceptions of and attitudes toward the music, and those who listened more frequently were more likely to have positive perceptions and attitudes…That is, the younger group to year-olds reported significantly greater scores on the violent-misogyny subscale indicating more positive perceptions and attitudes toward rap and hip hop music than the older group to year-olds " Gourdine, This study came to the conclusion that the younger the individuals listening to this rap and hip hop music, the more likely they did not identify the misogyny that came with this type of music. According to Gourdine and Lemmons, the older the individuals are, the more likely they are mature and disidentify with the harsh words and misogyny against women in rap music. Gourdine and Lemmons suggest that in order to improve the youth's understanding on rap music we must, "[monitor] the amount of time spent listening to music, which gives youths other alternatives. This study indicates that the younger the youths, the more likely they will listen to rap. This population is college-age, and the maturity factor may have affected the findings in this study. A study looking at younger youths is needed. The opportunity to analyze the music can be useful as well" Gourdine,
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