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In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his Marianism and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer , his anti-clericalism, and his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are already clear. The latter has been part of the legend since at least the later 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script. This view first gained currency in the 16th century. The early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode , names the king as 'Edward'; and while it does show Robin Hood accepting the King's pardon, he later repudiates it and returns to the greenwood. The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk , gives even less support to the picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king. The setting of the early ballads is usually attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not necessarily historically consistent. While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners. The essence of it in the present context was 'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but something in between'. The first record of a Robin Hood game was in in Exeter , but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time. The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the later 15th and 16th centuries. Written after , [11] it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham [15] c. These are particularly noteworthy as they show Robin's integration into May Day rituals towards the end of the Middle Ages; Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham, among other points of interest, contains the earliest reference to Friar Tuck. The plots of neither "the Monk" nor "the Potter" are included in the Gest; and neither is the plot of " Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne ", which is probably at least as old as those two ballads although preserved in a more recent copy. Each of these three ballads survived in a single copy, so it is unclear how much of the medieval legend has survived, and what has survived may not be typical of the medieval legend. It has been argued that the fact that the surviving ballads were preserved in written form in itself makes it unlikely they were typical; in particular, stories with an interest for the gentry were by this view more likely to be preserved. The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in his later incarnations. In "Robin Hood and the Monk", for example, he is shown as quick tempered and violent, assaulting Little John for defeating him in an archery contest; in the same ballad Much the Miller's Son casually kills a 'little page ' in the course of rescuing Robin Hood from prison. Of my good he shall haue some, Yf he be a por man. The first explicit statement to the effect that Robin Hood habitually robbed from the rich to give the poor can be found in John Stow 's Annales of England , about a century after the publication of the Gest. No more ye shall no gode yeman That walketh by gren-wode shawe; Ne no knyght ne no squyer That wol be a gode felawe. Within Robin Hood's band, medieval forms of courtesy rather than modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. In the early ballad, Robin's men usually kneel before him in strict obedience: The only character to use a quarterstaff in the early ballads is the potter, and Robin Hood does not take to a staff until the 17th-century Robin Hood and Little John. It has been influentially argued by J. Holt that the Robin Hood legend was cultivated in the households of the gentry, and that it would be mistaken to see in him a figure of peasant revolt. He is not a peasant but a yeoman, and his tales make no mention of the complaints of the peasants, such as oppressive taxes. This was not common throughout England, but in some regions the custom lasted until Elizabethan times, and during the reign of Henry VIII , was briefly popular at court. This fragment appears to tell the story of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne. This includes a dramatic version of the story of Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar and a version of the first part of the story of Robin Hood and the Potter. Neither of these ballads are known to have existed in print at the time, and there is no earlier record known of the "Curtal Friar" story. The publisher describes the text as a 'playe of Robyn Hood, verye proper to be played in Maye games', but does not seem to be aware that the text actually contains two separate plays. These plays drew on a variety of sources, including apparently A Gest of Robin Hood , and were influential in fixing the story of Robin Hood to the period of Richard I. Skelton himself is presented in the play as acting the part of Friar Tuck. Some scholars have conjectured that Skelton may have indeed written a lost Robin Hood play for Henry VIII's court, and that this play may have been one of Munday's sources. Robin Hood is known to have appeared in a number of other lost and extant Elizabethan plays. Lleweleyn, the last independent Prince of Wales, is presented playing Robin Hood. In it, the character Valentine is banished from Milan and driven out through the forest where he is approached by outlaws who, upon meeting him, desire him as their leader. They comment, 'By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar, This fellow were a king for our wild faction! When asked about the exiled Duke Senior, the character of Charles says that he is '"already in the forest of Arden, and a many merry men with him; and there they live like the old Robin Hood of England'. It is about half finished and writing may have been interrupted by his death in It is Jonson's only pastoral drama, it was written in sophisticated verse and included supernatural action and characters. The London theatre closure by the Puritans interrupted the portrayal of Robin Hood on the stage. The theatres would reopen with the Restoration in This short play adapts the story of the king's pardon of Robin Hood to refer to the Restoration. Broadside ballads and garlands With the advent of printing came the Robin Hood broadside ballads. Exactly when they displaced the oral tradition of Robin Hood ballads is unknown but the process seems to have been completed by the end of the 16th century. Near the end of the 16th century an unpublished prose life of Robin Hood was written, and included in the Sloane Manuscript. Largely a paraphrase of the Gest, it also contains material revealing that the author was familiar with early versions of a number of the Robin Hood broadside ballads. However, the Gest was reprinted from time to time throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. No surviving broadside ballad can be dated with certainty before the 17th century, but during that century, the commercial broadside ballad became the main vehicle for the popular Robin Hood legend. The broadside ballads were fitted to a small repertoire of pre-existing tunes resulting in an increase of "stock formulaic phrases' making them 'repetitive and verbose', [54] they commonly feature Robin Hood's contests with artisans: Among these ballads is Robin Hood and Little John telling the famous story of the quarter-staff fight between the two outlaws. Dobson and Taylor wrote, 'More generally the Robin of the broadsides is a much less tragic, less heroic and in the last resort less mature figure than his medieval predecessor'. The 17th century introduced the minstrel Alan-a-Dale. He first appeared in a 17th-century broadside ballad , and unlike many of the characters thus associated, managed to adhere to the legend. From this period there are a number of ballads in which Robin is severely 'drubbed' by a succession of tradesmen including a tanner , a tinker and a ranger. Yet even in these ballads Robin is more than a mere simpleton: The tinker, setting out to capture Robin, only manages to fight with him after he has been cheated out of his money and the arrest warrant he is carrying. In Robin Hood's Golden Prize , Robin disguises himself as a friar and cheats two priests out of their cash. Even when Robin is defeated, he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn, summoning the Merry Men to his aid. When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink with him instead see Robin Hood's Delight. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Robin Hood ballads were mostly sold in "Garlands" of 16 to 24 Robin Hood ballads; these were crudely printed chap books aimed at the poor. The garlands added nothing to the substance of the legend but ensured that it continued after the decline of the single broadside ballad. Percy and Ritson In Thomas Percy bishop of Dromore published Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , including ballads from the 17th-century Percy Folio manuscript which had not previously been printed, most notably Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne which is generally regarded as in substance a genuine late medieval ballad. A collection of all the Ancient Poems Songs and Ballads now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw. The only significant omission was Robin Hood and the Monk which would eventually be printed in Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood was also influential. Himself a supporter of the principles of the French Revolution and admirer of Thomas Paine Ritson held that Robin Hood was a genuinely historical, and genuinely heroic, character who had stood up against tyranny in the interests of the common people. He thought that Robin was of aristocratic extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated Nottinghamshire village of Locksley and that his original name was Robert Fitzooth. Ritson gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November , when he would have been around 87 years old. In copious and informative notes Ritson defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life. Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an 'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'. Children's editions of the garlands were produced and in a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood collection. Children's Robin Hood novels began to appear. It is not that children did not read Robin Hood stories before, but this is the first appearance of a Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at them. Egan made Robin Hood of noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national in scope: These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth. Pyle's Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century. In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows! The film, The Adventures of Robin Hood , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades; this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son invented for that purpose rather than compete with the image of this one. Years before Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox. However, due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some elements from Reynard into Robin Hood , thus making the title character a fox. This is the first in popular culture to portray King Richard as less than perfect. Later versions of the story have followed suit: The character Azeem in the movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves was originally called Nasir, until a crew member who had worked on Robin of Sherwood pointed out that the Nasir character was not part of the original legend and was created for the show Robin of Sherwood. The name was immediately changed to Azeem to avoid any potential copyright issues. A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' or Robyn , was its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century; [73] it is a French hypocorism , [74] already mentioned in the Roman de Renart in the 12th century. The surname Hood or Hude, Hode, etc. Unsurprisingly, therefore, medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law. The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset , dates from From onward, the names 'Robinhood', 'Robehod' or 'Robbehod' occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors. The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to 'Rabunhod' in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north. The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year The next notice is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Robin roberts dating 2012

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