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The Greek-speaking Mediterranean region was a powerhouse for the Early Church, producing many revered Church Fathers as well as those who became labelled as heresiarchs , such as Nestorius. The two schools dominated the theological controversies of the first centuries of Christian theology. Whereas Antioch traditionally focused the grammatical and historical interpretation of Scripture and developed a dyophysite christology , Alexandria was much influenced by neoplatonism , using an allegorical interpretation and developing miaphysitism. Christians experienced sporadic persecutions in both political spheres. Translation of the scriptures into Syriac began early in this region, with a Jewish group probably non-rabbinic producing a translation of the Hebrew Bible becoming the basis of the Church of the Easts Christian Peshitta. Eusebius  credits Mark the Evangelist as the bringer of Christianity to Egypt, and manuscript evidence shows that the faith was firmly established there by the middle of the 2nd century. Although the Greek-speaking community of Alexandria dominated the Egyptian church, speakers of native Coptic and many bilingual Christians were the majority. From the early 4th century, at the latest, the monastic movement emerged in the Egyptian desert, led by Anthony and Pachomius see Desert Fathers. Later that decade, Eusebius 6: Some scholars have followed hints in Eusebius and Jerome that Philip the Arab , the son of an Arab sheikh , may have been the first Christian Roman Emperor. However, evidence to support this theory is thin. The Ghassanid tribe were important Christian foederati of Rome, while the Lakhmids were an Arab Christian tribe that fought for the Persians. Although the Hejaz was never a stronghold of Arab Christianity, there are reports of Christians around Mecca and Yathrib before the advent of Islam. Armenians continue to celebrate their church as the oldest national church. Gregory was consecrated at Caesarea in Cappadocia. The Georgian kingdom of Iberia Kartli was probably evangelized first in the 2nd or 3rd century. However, the church was only established there in s. Georgian Christian literature emphasizes her connexion with Jerusalem and the role played the Georgian Jewish community in the growth of Christianity. Certainly, early Georgian liturgy does share a number of conspicuous features with that of Jerusalem. The Black Sea coastal kingdom of Lazica Egrisi had closer ties to Constantinople , and its bishops were by imperial appointment. Although the Lazican church originated around the same time as its Iberian neighbour, it was not until when its king, Tzath , accepted the faith. The Iberian church was under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch , until the reforming king Vakhtang Gorgasali set up an independent catholicos in In , the Edict of Milan proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire, and Christianity rapidly rose to prominence. The church's dioceses and bishoprics came to be modelled on state administration: However, Christians in the Zoroastrian Sasanian Empire speaking variously Syriac, Armenian or Greek are often found distancing themselves politically from their Roman co-religionists to appease the shah. Thus, around , when the Armenian Highland came under Sasanian control , a separate leadership from that in Caesarea developed and eventually settled in Echmiadzin , a division that still, to some extent, exists to this day. Likewise, in the 4th century, the bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon , the Sasanian capital, was recognised as leader of the Syriac and Greek-speaking Christians in the Persian empire, assuming the title catholicos, later patriarch. Christianity in Ethiopia and Nubia is traditionally linked to the biblical tale of the conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch in the Acts of the Apostles 8. Evidence from coinage and other historical references point to the early 4th-century conversion of King Ezana of Axum as the establishment of Christianity, whence Nubia and other surrounding areas were evangelized, all under the oversight of the Patriarch of Alexandria. In the 6th century, Ethiopian military might conquered a large portion of Yemen, strengthening Christian concentration in southern Arabia. Schisms[ edit ] The first major disagreement that led to a fracturing of the church was the so-called Nestorian Schism of the 5th century. This argument revolved around claims by Alexandrians over alleged theological extremism by Antiochians, and its battleground was the Roman capital, Constantinople, originating from its bishop's, Nestorius's, teaching on the nature of Christ. He was condemned for splitting Christ's person into separate divine and human natures, the extremes of this view, however, were not preached by Nestorius. The result led to a crisis among the Antiochians, some of whom, including Nestorius himself, found protection in Persia, which continued to espouse traditional Antiochian theology. The schism led to the total isolation of the Persian-sphere Church of the East , and the adoption of much Alexandrian theology in the Antiochian sphere of influence. Some of the Alexandrian victors at Ephesus, however, began to push their anti-Nestorian agenda too far, of whom Eutyches was the most prominent. Much back and forth led to the Council of Chalcedon of , which found a compromise that returned to a theology closer to that of Antioch, refereed by Rome, and condemned the monophysite theology of Eutyches. In , Emperor Zeno attempted to reconcile his church with his Henotikon. However, reunion was never achieved, and the non-Chalcedonians adopted miaphysitism based on traditional Alexandrian doctrine, in revolt against the Byzantine Church. The name Melkite meaning 'of the king' in Aramaic , originally intended as a slur applied to those who adhered to Chalcedon it is no longer used to describe them , who continued to be organised into the historic and autocephalous patriarchates of Constantinople , Antioch , Alexandria and Jerusalem. The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church held to a moderate Antiochian doctrine through these schisms and began aligning itself with Byzantium from the early 7th century, and finally broke off ties with their Armenian non-Chalcedonian neighbours in the s. The term Melkite refers to the adherents of the Antiochene Greek Orthodox Patriarchy who switched allegiance to the Papacy in after a disputed election to the Patriarchal See in because the See of Constantinople which objected to the canonically-elected Patriarch Cyril who was considered to be too pro-Roman consecrated another candidate until then the See was technically still in union with the Constantinople and Rome despite the split of The conquest came at the end of a particularly gruelling period of the Roman-Persian Wars , from the beginning of the 7th century, in which the Sasanid Shah Khosrau II had captured much of the Syria, Egypt, Anatolia and the Caucasus, and the Byzantines under Heraclius only managed a decisive counter-attack in the s. Likewise, resistance to the Arab onslaught in Egypt was minimal. This seems to be more due to the war fatigue throughout the region rather than entirely due to religious differences.
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