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Court show genre beginnings[ edit ] Radio court show era[ edit ] The beginnings of the court show genre are embedded in radio broadcasting, dating back to the mids. While television has been available since the s, it would not become the main media venue or even popular until the s. In the mids, the Hauptmann trial sparked an upsurge of fascination with dramatized court shows wherein trials and hearings were acted out. As radio fans were denied the vicarious thrill of eavesdropping on the actual courtroom trials, many turned to this venue of entertainment. In these programs, testimonies were limited to the most captivating, explosive portions of the original case. Though there was risk of libel and slander suits in producing court case recreations, this threat was commonly sidestepped by taking from trials of the distant past, with the original participants dead. It is a radio series that offered reenactments of genuine courtroom litigation, presided over by actor Percy Hemus as "The Judge. This was misleading, however, as listeners had no way of contacting the broadcast. Moreover, the verdict having been scripted was already decided. Not a dramatization, the radio broadcast was an early example of reality courtroom shows. The series featured mediator Alexander hearing the woeful accounts of various real-life defendants never identified by name and strongly admonished not to use bad language. The defendants' cases would be discussed by a panel of real-life judges, offering legal advice. The show was forced off the air by the end of as the New York County Lawyers' Association had lodged a protest over the dispensation of free counsel over the air. As a result, the New York Supreme Court prohibited actual judges and lawyers from appearing on the program, a ban that would extend to all future legal shows of the era. The series would later be transformed into a television program, moving to network TV once the television era took hold. The radio broadcast featured the reenactments of famous court cases throughout history. Listeners were taken into the courtroom where a judge was instructing a jury. Stories were delivered flat without music atypical of radio shows at the time , giving the testimony added reality and weight. By , court programming had begun to relocate and appear on television for the first time, and thus, the television court show genre was born. In its early stages, television court shows largely followed the same "dramatized" format as radio court shows, though with the new element of physical- and visual-based entertainment. The vast majority of these court shows were depicted in black-and-white. Dramatized court show[ edit ] This court show type is a subgenre. For its broader, collective genres, see legal drama and dramatic programming. In the same way as some films are based on true stories , featured cases on courtroom dramas are based on real-life cases. On the other hand, some are altogether made up, though often drawing on details from actual cases. To recreate cases and make them up, staff members working for the court shows would research the country's court cases. From the cases they felt would make for captivating television, they derived ideas or simply cases to recreate. Typically, the role of judge on these programs was played by a law school professor, an actor, or a retired judge. The roles of litigants, bailiffs, court reporters, and announcers were always performed by actors and actresses. While some of these court shows were scripted and required precise memorization, others were outlined and merely required ad-libbing. In outlined cases, actor-litigants and -witnesses were instructed to never get too far off the angle of the case. While the introduction of this technique dates back to the late s, the departure of its popular use occurred in the early s. The technique scarcely existed for a great deal of time, that is, up until Entertainment Studios recently reintroduced the methodology, airing three staged court shows as of the —13 television season: Each of these series uses a filming style and format more closely resembling arbitration-based court shows than the filmed dramas seen in early television. A standard disclaimer in tiny print is shown at the end of each of these programs. Entertainment Studios has been criticized for use of the technique. This setup is that of a mock trial which saw dramatized court case proceedings being heard and eventually ruled upon by an actor-judge or actors-jury. Roles were made up of plaintiffs, defendants, and judges; and frequently lawyers, juries, and witnesses. Unlike the present-day where the norm is the handling civil trials, most of the court shows in this era were criminal trials. The main setting was the courtroom; however, performance and drama had been known to leave the courtroom sporadically for short periods so as to add a story-like quality and fill out the plotline. Some of the shows had thematic cases, such as traffic-themed Traffic Court , divorce-themed Divorce Court , etc. In addition to its lives on radio and television, Famous Jury Trials also existed as a movie, produced nearly two decades later in The televised version featured dramatized cases in a courtroom setting and flashbacks to fill out the stories. It was an anthology series with no regular characters. Since the show was live, the actors playing the litigants had to dash, huffing and puffing, from the courtroom set to the set where the flashback was staged, then back to the courtroom set. The show opened in a courtroom with someone testifying and faded out to a flashback of the events covered in the testimony. But of course the flashback involved the same actor or actress seen in the initial courtroom scene, and the problem was that the different sets were in quite far apart in a large studio. Cases were performed live by actors, taking the parts of defendants, witnesses, and lawyers. The show consisted of a judge always played by Frankie Thomas Sr. On occasion, actual defendants and witnesses played themselves. It was renamed They Stand Accused while running on the DuMont network from to and again in An anthology courtroom series, They Stand Accused reenacted actual trials with juries drawn from the studio audience. Among the most successful of dramatized court shows was KTTV -Los Angeles' Divorce Court, which ran in prime time and out-rated all other network shows. Likewise, the s era of the show was also immensely popular. The scenes were scripted and actors took the roles of the lawyers and other characters from real-life cases, but Judge William B. Keene made his own decisions. During the first and second lives of the show, actors portrayed the litigants: In addition, a number of witnesses testified on behalf of the litigants, and student attorneys argued the cases. Mason was far more of a traditional, fully scripted dramatic program that just a courtroom program, with location shooting which often provided the background for the subsequent courtroom scenes, and also occasional excursions into Mason's private life. Early episodes were often based on the series of Mason novels authored by Erle Stanley Gardner. The show used actual attorneys as the show's lawyers and judges. Jurors were drawn from the studio audience. Real attorneys played the role of lawyers. Current and former law professors played the role of the judge. Accused featured a new story and characters each week, but with a recurring judge Edgar Allan Jones, a UCLA law professor , a bailiff, a clerk, and a court reporter. Prosecution and defense was played by real lawyers but actors played the role of defendants and witnesses in what were mostly criminal cases. The stories were based on little-known trials, researched by staff, lawyers, and law students. He presided over three small claims cases per half-hour in his straight-laced and quiet style. The actors were given the framework of a plot which were loosely based on a real case. They would then improvise these plots. The series, thanks in part to lax licensing, remains in occasional reruns to this day. The court show stemmed from the success of Day in Court and Accused. The program consisted of a bailiff, court reporter, and alternating judge. After that, it was picked up and syndicated by CBS in It centered on family court situations and involved children and adolescents in custody , paternity , Juvenile delinquency , and adoption hearings. Though based on real-life cases, it was entirely scripted and usually added melodramatic details. Judge Robert Franklin was played by actor Bob Shield. The program was hosted by Raymond Burr , who provided commentary both on the facts and points of law. Joseph Campanella played the role of the prosecuting attorney ; Charles Siebert acted as the defense attorney; and Madlyn Rhue was the judge. Initially, it starred a former real-life judge William D. Beginning in , actor Raymond St. Jacques began playing the role of Judge Clayton Thomas. Lawyers, litigants and court watchers were also played by actors. There are no actors, no scripts, no reenactments. Every second is real. As a result of its introduction, it was said that the show misrepresents the profession of lawyers and the legal system as a whole. Robert Stack hosted the series that, like Court of Last Resort, looked at the cases of a convicted felons from both the prosecutor and defense sides. This was to determine whether or not the case should be reopened. Viewers decided if the person was entitled to an appeal. The show's slogan was "No system is perfect. A real-life judge presided over the arguments of counsel and expert witnesses' testimony on controversial issues. The first episode debated the prohibition of wire-tapping. Not to be confused with the —88 reality court show of the same name. Prominent members of both political parties presented different issues. This was followed by the other party's "opposing counsel" and defense. A real judge presided. The series was intended to educate the voters in the upcoming presidential election. Because the series was a reality, it was considered nontraditional within its era; however, the program was drastically different from the later reality programs that would become the norm in the present-day courtroom genre. In this court show, cuts from real parole hearings in various prisons were presented in or minute segments. As litigation was not tampered with at all and cameras were simply taken into legitimate courts of law to capture the legal system naturally, the show was arguably more realistic than present-day court shows, which use a binding arbitration format.
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