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Keep in mind that New York State abolished slavery in , which resulted an environment of relative freedom and safety. In , Buffalo hosted the National Negro Convention. In , the anti-slavery Free Soil Party was founded in Buffalo. The North was not free of racism then, just as it isn't now. But what measure of freedom, opportunity, and dignity it did offer was still a big improvement over living in bondage. This begs the question of whether all buildings openly used by former fugitives in their everyday, post-slavery lives workplaces? Severance supplies the other reason. Severance was the first to write about the Underground Railroad on the Niagara Frontier. In , he noted the paucity of sites in Buffalo: The Buffalo of ante-bellum days was not a large place, and many personally escorted refugees were taken directly from country stations to the river ferries, without having to be hid in the city. This is a generous estimate; perhaps the reality is that only one in or one in Buffalo buildings dates from before the Civil War. My findings bear this out. Modern claims about UGRR sites must be approached with skepticism. If those who were present at the time left no record of a site that has been uncovered after years of research, we must ask: If so, how come there are no surviving legends that match the addresses found below in period sources? Genealogists have a saying, "Without proof, there is no truth. It is important to note how many tales first appear in print in the s and s, after virtually all eyewitnesses were deceased and UGRR efforts began to be considered romantic and laudable. We must also note a puzzling absence in the popular folklore. For anyone trying to evade capture, the knowledge of which houses to avoid was as critical as which houses to approach. If the level of danger was so high that even in Buffalo, everyone escaping from slavery needed to be concealed at all times, why are there are no legends of unsafe houses? If it was so dangerous that fugitives needed to be concealed at all times, then statistically speaking, most buildings that survive from this era would have been owned by enemies, not friends, of escaping slaves. Only recently have African Americans begun to be restored to their rightful place at the center of the story, both as fugitives who liberated themselves by fleeing bondage, and as organizers and leaders of the Underground Railroad itself. During the long night of Jim Crow politics, this truth was actively suppressed, or at least aggressively forgotten. New York Times, June 27, Narrative of William Wells Brown, an American slave: Charles Gilpin, , p. Summing Up "Interpretations of the past that fail the test of historical evidence still have real consequences. A place to remember: Using history to build community. Saying that a building was "on the Underground Railroad" is an extraordinary claim. It is a rare and honorable distinction, like liberating concentration camps, and cannot be awarded lightly. As Carl Sagan said, "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. They are not proof of UGRR activity any more than chimneys are proof that someone owned a Jewett stove. Carol Kammen's essay scroll to p. Wishful thinking and fakelore are not enough, or we might as well admit that in Buffalo, we automatically award UGRR status to everything found to pre-date the Civil War and some post-Civil War buildings! Lovable old houses are usually just that: Because of their scarcity, pre-Civil War houses are special and worth saving on their own merits. None of them need to claim UGRR status to be considered important. It is just plain wrong to commit historical fraud in the service of historic preservation. Most importantly, giving aid to fugitives does not automatically mean providing concealment, a Type A use. It could also mean providing Type B support:
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