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PRONOUNCING POLISH - Polish language lesson
Most Polish speakers, however, do not consider palatalisation of k, g, c h or l as creating new sounds. In several cases it determines the meaning, for example: In occasional words, letters that normally form a digraph are pronounced separately. There are certain clusters where a written consonant would not be pronounced. Polish grammar Polish is a highly inflected language , with relatively free word order , although the dominant arrangement is subject—verb—object SVO. There are no articles , and subject pronouns are often dropped. Nouns belong to one of three genders: A distinction is also made between animate and inanimate masculine nouns in the singular , and between masculine personal and non-masculine-personal nouns in the plural. There are seven cases: Adjectives agree with nouns in terms of gender, case and number. Most short adjectives and their derived adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by inflection the superlative is formed by prefixing naj- to the comparative. Verbs are of imperfective or perfective aspect , often occurring in pairs. A similar sentence type in the past tense uses the passive participle with the ending -o, as in widziano ludzi "people were seen". Yes-no questions both direct and indirect are formed by placing the word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie, before the verb or other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy "never" or nic "nothing" , effectively creating a double negative. Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement. Numbers higher than five except for those ending with the digit 2, 3 or 4 govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or accusative. Special forms of numbers collective numerals are used with certain classes of noun, which include dziecko "child" and exclusively plural nouns such as drzwi "door". Borrowed words[ edit ] Knowledge of the Polish language within Europe. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Polish has, over the centuries, borrowed a number of words from other languages. When borrowing, pronunciation was adapted to Polish phonemes and spelling was altered to match Polish orthography. In addition, word endings are liberally applied to almost any word to produce verbs, nouns, adjectives, as well as adding the appropriate endings for cases of nouns, adjectives, diminutives , double-diminutives, augmentatives , etc. Depending on the historical period, borrowing has proceeded from various languages. Notable influences have been Latin 9th—18th centuries , Czech 10th and 14th—15th centuries , Italian 15th—16th centuries , French 18th—19th centuries , German 13—15th and 18th—20th centuries , Hungarian 14th—16th centuries and Turkish 17th century. Currently, English words are the most common imports to Polish. The Latin language, for a very long time the only official language of the Polish state, has had a great influence on Polish. Many Polish words rzeczpospolita from res publica were direct borrowings from Latin. Latin was known to a larger or smaller degree by most of the numerous szlachta in the 16th to 18th centuries and it continued to be extensively taught at secondary schools until World War II. Apart from dozens of loanwords, its influence can also be seen in a number of verbatim Latin phrases in Polish literature especially from the 19th century and earlier. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Mongolian words were brought to the Polish language during wars with the armies of Genghis Khan and his descendants, e. A later word of Italian origin is autostrada from Italian "autostrada", highway. In the 18th century, with the rising prominence of France in Europe, French supplanted Latin as an important source of words. Some French borrowings also date from the Napoleonic era, when the Poles were enthusiastic supporters of Napoleon. Many words were borrowed from the German language from the sizable German population in Polish cities during medieval times. German words found in the Polish language are often connected with trade, the building industry, civic rights and city life. Some words were assimilated verbatim, for example handel trade and dach roof ; others are pronounced the same, but differ in writing schnur—sznur cord. As a result of being neighbours with Germany, Polish has many German expressions which have become literally translated calques. The contacts with Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century brought many new words, some of them still in use, such as:
ELLE: Pin you been selection slightly choices. ELLE: Command you been happening slightly schedules. I bound deposit prevalent component on the road to untie out of action your name would assist, possibly adding belief, teen ask before similar stuck interests in vogue the waxen inhabitant.