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How to make a recycled drinking glass from a vodka bottle
Cask or keg There are several steps in the brewing process, which may include malting, mashing, lautering, boiling , fermenting , conditioning , filtering , and packaging. Care must be taken when milling to ensure that the starch reserves are sufficiently milled without damaging the husk and providing coarse enough grits that a good filter bed can be formed during lautering. Grains are typically dry-milled with roller mills or hammer mills. Hammer mills, which produce a very fine mash, are often used when mash filters are going to be employed in the lautering process because the grain does not have to form its own filter bed. In modern plants, the grain is often conditioned with water before it is milled to make the husk more pliable, thus reducing breakage and improving lauter speed. Mashing converts the starches released during the malting stage into sugars that can be fermented. The milled grain is mixed with hot water in a large vessel known as a mash tun. In this vessel, the grain and water are mixed together to create a cereal mash. During the mash, naturally occurring enzymes present in the malt convert the starches long chain carbohydrates in the grain into smaller molecules or simple sugars mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides. This "conversion" is called saccharification which occurs between the temperatures - degrees F . The result of the mashing process is a sugar-rich liquid or "wort" , which is then strained through the bottom of the mash tun in a process known as lautering. Additional water may be sprinkled on the grains to extract additional sugars a process known as sparging. This stage is where many chemical reactions take place, and where important decisions about the flavour, colour, and aroma of the beer are made. Hops add flavour, aroma and bitterness to the beer. At the end of the boil, the hopped wort settles to clarify in a vessel called a "whirlpool", where the more solid particles in the wort are separated out. A variety of heat exchanger designs are used in breweries, with the most common a plate-style. Water or glycol run in channels in the opposite direction of the wort, causing a rapid drop in temperature. A type of yeast is selected and added, or "pitched", to the fermentation tank. When the fermentation is complete the brewer may rack the beer into a new tank, called a conditioning tank. Mashing A mash tun at the Bass Museum in Burton-upon-Trent Mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn , sorghum , rye or wheat , known as the " grain bill ", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture in a vessel called a "mash tun". Mashing is a form of steeping,  and defines the act of brewing, such as with making tea, sake , and soy sauce. Mashing usually takes 1 to 2 hours, and during this time the various temperature rests activate different enzymes depending upon the type of malt being used, its modification level, and the intention of the brewer. The activity of these enzymes convert the starches of the grains to dextrins and then to fermentable sugars such as maltose. This rest is generally used only with undermodified i. This in turn creates a beer lower in body and higher in alcohol. Duration and pH variances also affect the sugar composition of the resulting wort. Lautering Lautering is the separation of the wort the liquid containing the sugar extracted during mashing from the grains. Most separation processes have two stages: The lauter tun is a tank with holes in the bottom small enough to hold back the large bits of grist and hulls. Some lauter tuns have provision for rotating rakes or knives to cut into the bed of grist to maintain good flow. The knives can be turned so they push the grain, a feature used to drive the spent grain out of the vessel. The empty frames contain the mash, including the spent grains, and have a capacity of around one hectoliter. The plates contain a support structure for the filter cloth. The plates, frames, and filter cloths are arranged in a carrier frame like so: Newer mash filters have bladders that can press the liquid out of the grains between spargings. The grain does not act like a filtration medium in a mash filter. These can produce a vigorous and favourable boil, but are also apt to scorch the wort where the flame touches the kettle, causing caramelisation and making cleanup difficult. Most breweries use a steam-fired kettle, which uses steam jackets in the kettle to boil the wort. Hops are added to the chamber, the hot wort from the kettle is run through it, and then immediately cooled in the wort chiller before entering the fermentation chamber. Hopbacks utilizing a sealed chamber facilitate maximum retention of volatile hop aroma compounds that would normally be driven off when the hops contact the hot wort. Furthermore, while a whirlpool is useful only for the removal of pelleted hops as flowers do not tend to separate as easily , in general hopbacks are used only for the removal of whole flower hops as the particles left by pellets tend to make it through the hopback. In modern breweries this is achieved through a plate heat exchanger. A plate heat exchanger has many ridged plates, which form two separate paths. The wort is pumped into the heat exchanger, and goes through every other gap between the plates. The cooling medium, usually water, goes through the other gaps. The ridges in the plates ensure turbulent flow. After cooling, oxygen is often dissolved into the wort to revitalize the yeast and aid its reproduction. While boiling, it is useful to recover some of the energy used to boil the wort. On its way out of the brewery, the steam created during the boil is passed over a coil through which unheated water flows. By adjusting the rate of flow, the output temperature of the water can be controlled. This is also often done using a plate heat exchanger. The water is then stored for later use in the next mash, in equipment cleaning, or wherever necessary. When cold water is used to cool the wort in a heat exchanger, the water is significantly warmed. In an efficient brewery, cold water is passed through the heat exchanger at a rate set to maximize the water's temperature upon exiting. This now-hot water is then stored in a hot water tank. It is during this stage that sugars won from the malt are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide , and the product can be called beer for the first time. Most breweries today use cylindroconical vessels, or CCVs, which have a conical bottom and a cylindrical top. CCVs can handle both fermenting and conditioning in the same tank. At the end of fermentation, the yeast and other solids which have fallen to the cone's apex can be simply flushed out of a port at the apex. Open fermentation vessels are also used, often for show in brewpubs, and in Europe in wheat beer fermentation. These vessels have no tops, which makes harvesting top-fermenting yeasts very easy. The open tops of the vessels make the risk of infection greater, but with proper cleaning procedures and careful protocol about who enters fermentation chambers, the risk can be well controlled. Fermentation tanks are typically made of stainless steel. If they are simple cylindrical tanks with beveled ends, they are arranged vertically, as opposed to conditioning tanks which are usually laid out horizontally. Only a very few breweries still use wooden vats for fermentation as wood is difficult to keep clean and infection-free and must be repitched more or less yearly. Beer style Open vessel showing fermentation taking place There are three main fermentation methods, warm , cool and wild or spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in open or closed vessels. There may be a secondary fermentation which can take place in the brewery, in the cask or in the bottle. Brewing yeasts are traditionally classed as "top-cropping" or "top-fermenting" and "bottom-cropping" or "bottom-fermenting". Thus the method of collection no longer implies a species association. There are a few remaining breweries who collect yeast in the top-cropping method, such as Samuel Smiths brewery in Yorkshire, Marstons in Staffordshire and several German hefeweizen producers. By no means do all top-cropping yeasts demonstrate this behaviour, but it features strongly in many English yeasts that may also exhibit chain forming the failure of budded cells to break from the mother cell , which is in the technical sense different from true flocculation. The most common top-cropping brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the same species as the common baking yeast. However, baking and brewing yeasts typically belong to different strains, cultivated to favour different characteristics: As such, the yeasts involved in what has been typically called top-cropping or top-fermenting ale may be both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and complex hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Three notable ales, Chimay , Orval and Westmalle , are fermented with these hybrid strains, which are identical to wine yeasts from Switzerland. The process of natural selection meant that the wild yeasts that were most cold tolerant would be the ones that would remain actively fermenting in the beer that was stored in the caves. A sample of these Bavarian yeasts was sent from the Spaten brewery in Munich to the Carlsberg brewery in Copenhagen in who began brewing with it. In Emile Hansen completed a study on pure yeast culture isolation and the pure strain obtained from Spaten went into industrial production in as Carlsberg yeast No 1. Another specialized pure yeast production plant was installed at the Heineken Brewery in Rotterdam the following year and together they began the supply of pure cultured yeast to brewers across Europe. For the role of wild yeast in winemaking, see Yeast in winemaking. Lambic beers are historically brewed in Brussels and the nearby Pajottenland region of Belgium without any yeast inoculation. Specific bacteria cultures are also available to reproduce certain styles. The beer is usually transferred into a second container, so that it is no longer exposed to the dead yeast and other debris also known as "trub" that have settled to the bottom of the primary fermenter. This prevents the formation of unwanted flavours and harmful compounds such as acetylaldehyde. They are bottled with a viable yeast population in suspension. If there is no residual fermentable sugar left, sugar or wort or both may be added in a process known as priming. The resulting fermentation generates CO2 that is trapped in the bottle, remaining in solution and providing natural carbonation. Bottle-conditioned beers may be either filled unfiltered direct from the fermentation or conditioning tank, or filtered and then reseeded with yeast. Cask ale Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is unfiltered and unpasteurised beer that is conditioned including secondary fermentation and served from a cask, either pumped up from a cellar via a beer engine hand pump , or from a tap by gravity. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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