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Dating Nigerian "Men" with Delaila Johnson & King Towmeey
Nok sculpture, terracotta The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and AD , producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in Nri and Aguleri , where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century,  and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Middle Ages — Further information: History of Nigeria — Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo. The Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese and further. The territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria; it lasted until the break-up of the Empire into various European colonies. Benin City in the 17th century with the Oba of Benin in procession. This image appeared in a European book, Description of Africa, published in Amsterdam in Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western, central and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Some of the more prolific slave traders were linked with the Oyo Empire in the southwest, the Aro Confederacy in the southeast and the Sokoto Caliphate in the north. The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. British Nigeria — Main article: Colonial Nigeria Emir of Kano, with cavalry, photographed in The slave trade was engaged in by European state and non-state actors such as Great Britain , the Netherlands , Portugal and private companies, as well as various African states and non-state actors. With rising anti-slavery sentiment at home and changing economic realities, Great Britain outlawed the international slave trade in Following the Napoleonic Wars , Great Britain established the West Africa Squadron in an attempt to halt the international traffic in slaves. Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in , deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye , and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January British missionaries expanded their operations and travelled further inland. In , British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. In the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On 1 January , Nigeria became a British protectorate , and part of the British Empire , the foremost world power at the time. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the independent kingdoms of what would become Nigeria fought a number of conflicts against the British Empire's efforts to expand its territory. By war, the British conquered Benin in , and, in the Anglo-Aro War — , defeated other opponents. The restraint or conquest of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the Protectorates. Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country. By independence in , regional differences in modern educational access were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. Imbalances between North and South were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism. By the middle of the 20th century, a great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. Nigeria achieved independence in Nigeria's government was a coalition of conservative parties: Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group AG , which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the plebiscite. The northern part of the country was now far larger than the southern part. In , the nation established a Federal Republic , with Azikiwe as its first president. Civil war — Main article: Nigerian Civil War The Republic of Biafra in June , when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria The disquilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led, in , to back-to-back military coups. But, the coup plotters struggled to form a central government. Later, the counter-coup of , supported primarily by Northern military officers, facilitated the rise of Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon to head of state. Tension rose between North and South; Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region. In May , the Eastern Region declared independence as a state called the Republic of Biafra , under the leadership of Lt. The month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January Britain and the Soviet Union were the main military backers of the Nigerian government while France and others aided the Biafrans. Nigeria used Egyptian pilots for their air force. Nigerian military juntas of — and — Olusegun Obasanjo was a military president who ruled the country from to During the oil boom of the s, Nigeria joined OPEC and the huge oil revenues it was generating enriched the economy. Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living of the population, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and on international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns. It did not develop alternate revenue sources in the economy for economic stability. That spelled doom to federalism in Nigeria. The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. In the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation NNPC began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country". His regime was overthrown by another military coup in He set as the official deadline for a return to democratic governance. Babangida's tenure was marked by a flurry of political activity: At the time most federal revenue was dedicated to servicing that debt. He enrolled Nigeria in the Organization of the Islamic Conference , which aggravated religious tensions in the country. Babangida finally kept his promise to relinquish office to a civilian government, but not before appointing Ernest Shonekan head of an interim government. He shifted money to offshore accounts in western European banks and defeated coup plots by bribing army generals. In the government hanged environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa on trumped-up charges in the deaths of four Ogoni elders. His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar , adopted a new constitution on 5 May , which provided for multiparty elections. On 29 May Abubakar transferred power to the winner of the elections, Obasanjo, who had since retired from the military. Although the elections that brought Obasanjo to power in and again in were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and to hasten development. Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta region and inadequate infrastructures are some of the issues in the country. The international community has been observing Nigerian elections to encourage a free and fair process, and condemned this one as being severely flawed. Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as Yar'Adua's replacement on 6 May ,  becoming Nigeria's 14th Head of State, while his vice-president, Namadi Sambo , an architect and former Kaduna State governor, was chosen on 18 May , by the National Assembly. His confirmation followed President Jonathan's nomination of Sambo to that position. Jonathan of the PDP was declared the winner on 19 April , having won the election with a total of 22,, of the 39,, votes cast, to stand ahead of Muhammadu Buhari from the main opposition party, the Congress for Progressive Change CPC , which won 12,, of the total votes cast. Observers generally praised the election as being fair. Jonathan was generally praised for conceding defeat and limiting the risk of unrest.
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