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French Baroque music composer Michel Richard Delalande — , pen in hand. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing also includes the creation of music notation , such as a sheet music "score" , which is then performed by the composer or by other singers or musicians. In popular music and traditional music, the act of composing, which is typically called songwriting, may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet , which sets out the melody , lyrics and chord progression. In classical music, the composer typically orchestrates his or her own compositions, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and then play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. Even when music is notated relatively precisely, as in classical music, there are many decisions that a performer has to make, because notation does not specify all of the elements of music precisely. The process of deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed "interpretation". Different performers' interpretations of the same work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen and the playing or singing style or phrasing of the melodies. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting their songs, just as much as those who perform the music of others. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice , whereas interpretation is generally used to mean the individual choices of a performer. A work of music can have multiple composers, which often occurs in popular music when a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, and a third person orchestrates the songs. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from avant-garde music that uses graphic notation , to text compositions such as Aus den sieben Tagen , to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. A more commonly known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces as well as spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers. Musical notation Sheet music is written representation of music. This is a homorhythmic i. When music is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the music, such as the notes of a melody , are notated. Music notation also often provides instructions on how to perform the music. For example, the sheet music for a song may state that the song is a "slow blues" or a "fast swing", which indicates the tempo and the genre. To read music notation, a person must have an understanding of music theory , harmony and the performance practice associated with a particular song or piece's genre. Written notation varies with style and period of music. In the s, notated music is produced as sheet music or, for individuals with computer scorewriter programs, as an image on a computer screen. In ancient times, music notation was put onto stone or clay tablets. To perform music from notation, a singer or instrumentalist requires an understanding of the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or a genre. In genres requiring musical improvisation , the performer often plays from music where only the chord changes and form of the song are written, requiring the performer to have a great understanding of the music's structure, harmony and the styles of a particular genre e. In Western art music, the most common types of written notation are scores, which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet , which notates the melody, chords, lyrics if it is a vocal piece , and structure of the music. Fake books are also used in jazz; they may consist of lead sheets or simply chord charts, which permit rhythm section members to improvise an accompaniment part to jazz songs. Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz " big bands. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute , a stringed, fretted instrument. Musical improvisation Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music, often within or based on a pre-existing harmonic framework or chord progression. Improvisation is the act of instantaneous composition by performers, where compositional techniques are employed with or without preparation. Improvisation is a major part of some types of music, such as blues , jazz , and jazz fusion , in which instrumental performers improvise solos, melody lines and accompaniment parts. In the Western art music tradition, improvisation was an important skill during the Baroque era and during the Classical era. In the Baroque era, performers improvised ornaments and basso continuo keyboard players improvised chord voicings based on figured bass notation. In the Classical era, solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during concerts. However, in the 20th and early 21st century, as "common practice" Western art music performance became institutionalized in symphony orchestras, opera houses and ballets, improvisation has played a smaller role. At the same time, some modern composers have increasingly included improvisation in their creative work. In Indian classical music , improvisation is a core component and an essential criterion of performances. Music theory Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques and examining the language and notation of music. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music — rhythm, harmony harmonic function , melody , structure, form , and texture. Broadly, music theory may include any statement, belief, or conception of or about music. Some have applied acoustics , human physiology , and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived. Aspect of music Music has many different fundamentals or elements. Depending on the definition of "element" being used, these can include: All three curriculums identify pitch, dynamics, timbre and texture as elements, but the other identified elements of music are far from universally agreed. Below is a list of the three official versions of the "elements of music": The inter-related dimensions of music are listed as: The two most common contexts can be differentiated by describing them as the "rudimentary elements of music" and the "perceptual elements of music". Rudimentary elements In the s, the phrases "the elements of music" and "the rudiments of music" were used interchangeably. A definition which most accurately reflects this usage is: Perceptual elements Since the emergence of the study of psychoacoustics in the s, most lists of elements of music have related more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it or study it. Seashore, in his book Psychology of Music,  identified four "psychological attributes of sound". He did not call them the "elements of music" but referred to them as "elemental components" p. Nonetheless these elemental components link precisely with four of the most common musical elements: This usage of the phrase "the elements of music" links more closely with Webster's New 20th Century Dictionary definition of an element as: Although writers of lists of "rudimentary elements of music" can vary their lists depending on their personal or institutional priorities, the perceptual elements of music should consist of an established or proven list of discrete elements which can be independently manipulated to achieve an intended musical effect. It seems at this stage that there is still research to be done in this area. Analysis of styles Funk places most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove , with entire songs based around a vamp on a single chord. Pictured are the influential funk musicians George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic in Some styles of music place an emphasis on certain of these fundamentals, while others place less emphasis on certain elements. To give one example, while Bebop -era jazz makes use of very complex chords, including altered dominants and challenging chord progressions , with chords changing two or more times per bar and keys changing several times in a tune, funk places most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove , with entire songs based around a vamp on a single chord. While Romantic era classical music from the mid- to lates makes great use of dramatic changes of dynamics, from whispering pianissimo sections to thunderous fortissimo sections, some entire Baroque dance suites for harpsichord from the early s may use a single dynamic. To give another example, while some art music pieces, such as symphonies are very long, some pop songs are just a few minutes long. Description of elements Pitch and melody Pitch is an aspect of a sound that we can hear, reflecting whether one musical sound, note or tone is "higher" or "lower" than another musical sound, note or tone. We can talk about the highness or lowness of pitch in the more general sense, such as the way a listener hears a piercingly high piccolo note or whistling tone as higher in pitch than a deep thump of a bass drum. We also talk about pitch in the precise sense associated with musical melodies , basslines and chords. Precise pitch can only be determined in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. For example, it is much easier for listeners to discern the pitch of a single note played on a piano than to try to discern the pitch of a crash cymbal that is struck.
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