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Do girls prefer lightskin or darkskin guys? Ft. Els Marshall
Evolution[ edit ] Due to natural selection, people who lived in areas of intense sunlight developed dark skin colouration to protect against ultraviolet UV light and to protect their body mainly from folate depletion. Evolutionary pigmentation of the skin was caused by ultraviolet radiation of the sun. As hominids gradually lost their fur between 4. In the tropics, natural selection favoured dark-skinned human populations as high levels of skin pigmentation protected against the harmful effects of sunlight. Genetic evidence also supports this notion, demonstrating that around 1. The solution was sweating and loss of body hair. Early humans, like chimpanzees now, had few sweat glands, and most of them were located in the palms of the hand and the soles of feet. At times, individuals with more sweat glands were born. These humans could search for food and hunt for longer periods before being forced back to the shades. The more they could forage, more and healthier offspring they could produce, and higher the chance they had to pass on their genes for abundant sweat glands. With less hair, sweat could evaporate more easily and cool the body of humans faster. A few million years of evolution later, early humans had sparse body hair and more than 2 million sweat glands in their body. Scientists have long assumed that humans evolved melanin in order to absorb or scatter harmful sun radiation. Some researchers assumed that melanin protects against skin cancer. While high UV radiation can cause skin cancer, the development of cancer usually occurs after child bearing age. As natural selection favours individuals with traits of reproductive success, skin cancer had little effect on the evolution of dark skin. Previous hypotheses suggested that sunburned nipples impeded breastfeeding, but a slight tan is enough to protect mothers against this issue. The study found that even short periods of intense sunlight are able to halve folate levels if someone has light skin. Low folate levels are correlated with neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and spina bifida. UV rays can strip away folate, which is important to the development of healthy foetuses. In these abnormalities children are born with incomplete brain or spinal cord. She also found that folate was crucial to sperm development; some male contraception drugs are based on folate inhibition. It has been found that folate may have been the driving force behind the evolution of dark skin. Light skin pigmentation protects against vitamin D deficiency. It is known that dark-skinned people who have moved to climates of limited sunlight can develop vitamin D related conditions such as rickets , and different forms of cancer. The mortality rates of melanoma has been very low less than 5 per , before the midth century. It has been argued that the low melanoma mortality rates during reproductive age cannot be the principal reason behind the development of dark skin pigmentation. There are no data or studies that support that sunburn can cause damage so serious that can affect reproductive success. Although it is true that eumelanin has antibacterial properties, its importance is secondary as a physical absorbed to protect against UVR induced damage. This hypothesis is not consistent with the evidence that most of the hominid evolution took place in savanna environment and not in tropical rainforests. Melanin is derivative of the amino acid tyrosine. Eumelanin is the dominant form of melanin found in human skin. Melanin is produced in specialized cells called melanocytes , which are found at the lowest level of the epidermis. People with naturally occurring dark skin have melanosomes which are clumped, large, and full of eumelanin. Keratocytes from dark skin cocultured with melanocytes give rise to a melanosome distribution pattern characteristic of dark skin. Due to the heavily melanised melanosomes in darkly pigmented skin, it can absorb more energy from UVR and thus offers better protection against sunburns and by absorption and dispersion UV rays. Photodegration occurs when melanin absorbs photons. Recent research suggest that the photoprotective effect of dark skin is increased by the fact that melanin can capture free radicals , such as hydrogen peroxide , which are created by the interaction of UVR and layers of the skin. These qualities of dark skin enhance the barrier protection function of the skin. Solar radiation heats up rather the body's surface and not the interior. Furthermore, this amount of heat is negligible compared the heat produced when muscles are actively used during exercise. Regardless of skin colour, humans have excellent capabilities to dissipate heat through sweating. This accounts for the fact that dark-skinned people get visibly darker after one or two weeks of sun exposure, and then lose their colour after months when they stay out of the sun. Darkly pigmented people tend to exhibit less signs of aging in their skin than the lightly pigmented because their dark skin protects them from most photoaging. Many genes work together in complex, additive, and non-additive combinations to determine the skin colour of an individual. The skin colour variations are normally distributed from light to dark, as it is usual for polygenic traits. This is remarkable given that the number of polymorphisms for almost all genes in the human gene pool is greater in African samples than in any other geographic region. So, while the MC1Rf gene does not significantly contribute to variation in skin colour around the world, the allele found in high levels in African populations probably protects against UV radiation and was probably important in the evolution of dark skin. This does not take into account the effects of epistasis , which would probably increase the number of related genes. As a consequence there are many health implications that are the product of population movements of humans of certain skin pigmentation to new environments with different levels of UVR. The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against folate depletion. Folate is a water-soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after fertilization. Folate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, folate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Folate breaks down in high intense UVR. It is essential for maintaining proper levels of amino acids which make up proteins. Folate is used in the formation of myelin, the sheath that covers nerve cells and makes it possible to send electrical signals quickly. Folate also plays an important role in the development of many neurotransmitters, e. Serum folate is broken down by UV radiation or alcohol consumption. Dark-skinned people living in low sunlight environments have been recorded to be very susceptible to vitamin D deficiency due to reduced vitamin D synthesis. A dark-skinned person requires about six times as much UVB than lightly pigmented persons. This is not a problem near the equator; however, it can be a problem at higher latitudes. Dark-skinned people having a high body-mass index and not taking vitamin D supplements were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Rickets is caused by reduced vitamin D synthesis that causes an absence of vitamin D, which then causes the dietary calcium to not be properly absorbed. This disease in the past was commonly found among dark-skinned Americans of the southern part of the United States who migrated north into low sunlight environments. The popularity of sugary drinks and decreased time spent outside have contributed to significant rise of developing rickets. Deformities of the female pelvis related to severe rickets impair normal childbirth, which leads to higher mortality of the infant, mother, or both. Vitamin D deficiency is most common in regions with low sunlight, especially in the winter. Outside the tropics UVR has to penetrate through a thicker layer of atmosphere , which results in most of the UVB reflected or destroyed en route; because of this there is less potential for vitamin D biosynthesis in regions far from the equator. Higher amount of vitamin D intake for dark-skinned people living in regions with low levels of sunlight are advised by doctors to follow vitamin D rich diet or take vitamin D supplements,       although there is recent evidence that dark-skinned individuals are able to process vitamin D more efficiently than lighter-skinned individuals so may have a lower threshold of sufficiency. Areas that have higher amounts of UVR have darker-skinned populations, generally located nearer the equator. Areas that are further away from the equator generally closer to the poles have a lower concentration of UVR, and contain lighter-skinned populations. This is the result of human evolution which contributed to variable melanin content in the skin to adapt to certain environments. A larger percentage of dark skinned people are found in the Southern Hemisphere because latitudinal land mass distribution is disproportionate. Different dark-skinned populations are not necessarily closely related genetically. The native people of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, have some of the darkest skin pigmentation in the world. Although these people are widely separated they share similar physical environments. In both regions, they experience very high UVR exposure from cloudless skies near the equator which is reflected from water or sand. Because it is impractical to wear extensive clothing in a watery environment culture and technology does little to buffer UVR exposure. The skin takes a very large amount of UVR radiation. These populations are probably near or at the maximum darkness that human skin can achieve. Only — generations ago, the ancestors of most people living today likely also resided in a different place and had a different skin color. According to Nina Jablonski, darkly pigmented modern populations in South India and Sri Lanka are an example of this, having redarkened after their ancestors migrated down from areas much farther north. Scientists originally believed that such shifts in pigmentation occurred relatively slowly. The speed of change is also affected by clothing, which tends to slow it down. Despite early migrations, genetic evidence has pointed out that the indigenous peoples of Australia are genetically very dissimilar to the dark-skinned populations of Africa and that they are more closely related to Eurasian populations. The islands of Melanesia are located immediately north and northeast of Australia as well as east coast of Papua New Guinea. However, Melanesians are one of the dark-skinned human populations known to have naturally occurring blond hair. Due to their similar phenotype and the location of New Guinea being in the migration route taken by Indigenous Australians, it was generally believed that Papuans and Aboriginal Australians shared a common origin. However, a study failed to find clear indications of a single shared genetic origin between the two populations, suggesting multiple waves of migration into Sahul with distinct ancestries. These differences depend in part on general distance from the equator, illustrating the complex interactions of evolutionary forces which have contributed to the geographic distribution of skin color at any point of time. For example, Wilson et al. Among these dark brown-skinned autochthonous groups are the Mahra , Soqotri , Qara and Janaba, who speak south Semitic languages. Colorism The preference or disfavour for darker skin has varied depending on geographical area and time. Today, darker skin is viewed as fashionable and as a sign of well-being in some societies. This resulted in the development of tanning industry in several countries. However, in some countries, dark skin is not seen as highly desirable or indicative of higher class, especially among women.
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