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Agriculture in Mexico It has been argued that "during the twentieth century two 'revolutions' transformed rural Mexico: Although the Mexican Revolution had broken the back of the hacienda system and land reform in Mexico had by distributed a large expanse of land in central and southern Mexico, agricultural productivity had fallen. During the administration of Manuel Avila Camacho —46 , the government put resources into developing new breeds of plants and partnered with the Rockefeller Foundation. Agriculture in Mexico had been a sociopolitical issue, a key factor in some regions' participation in the Mexican Revolution. It was also a technical issue, which the development of a cohort trained agronomists, who were to advise peasants how to increase productivity. This drive for transforming agriculture would have the benefit of keeping Mexico self-sufficient in food and in the political sphere with the Cold War, potentially stem unrest and the appeal of Communism. In Mexico, it also served political ends, separating peasant agriculture based on the ejido and considered one of the victories of the Mexican Revolution, from agribusiness that requires large-scale land ownership, irrigation, specialized seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, machinery, and a low-wage paid labor force. New breeds of maize, beans, along with wheat produced bumper crops with proper inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides and careful cultivation. Many Mexican farmers who had been dubious about the scientists or hostile to them often a mutual relationship of discord came to see the scientific approach to agriculture worth adopting. In , one of the breeding lines became a new cultivar , IR8. Annual rice production in the Philippines increased from 3. Green Revolution in India In , India was on the brink of mass famine. Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice. IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR Wheat yields in least developed countries since , in kilograms per hectare. In the s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mids, they had risen to six tons per hectare. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research — CGIAR[ edit ] In , foundation officials proposed a worldwide network of agricultural research centers under a permanent secretariat. CGIAR has added many research centers throughout the world. This began in the s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations. Brazil's agricultural revolution[ edit ] Brazil's vast inland cerrado region was regarded as unfit for farming before the s because the soil was too acidic and poor in nutrients, according to Norman Borlaug. However, from the s, vast quantities of lime pulverised chalk or limestone were poured on the soil to reduce acidity. The effort went on for decades; by the late s, between 14 million and 16 million tonnes of lime were being spread on Brazilian fields each year. The quantity rose to 25 million tonnes in and , equalling around five tonnes of lime per hectare. As a result, Brazil has become the world's second biggest soybean exporter. Soybeans are also widely used in animal feed, and the large volume of soy produced in Brazil has contributed to Brazil's rise to become the biggest exporter of beef and poultry in the world. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa. The program has advanced yearly ever since. Various sources claim that the program has been an unusual success, hailing it as a "miracle". The Green Revolution spread technologies that already existed, but had not been widely implemented outside industrialized nations. Two kinds of technologies were used in the Green Revolution and aim at cultivation and breeding area respectively. The technologies in cultivation are targeted at providing excellent growing conditions, which included modern irrigation projects, pesticides , and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The breeding technologies aimed at improving crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time. These technologies included hybrids , combining modern genetics with selections. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as HYVs or " high-yielding varieties ". HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. Norman Borlaug , who is usually recognized as the "Father of the Green Revolution", bred rust-resistant cultivars which have strong and firm stems, preventing them from falling over under extreme weather at high levels of fertilization. These programs successfully led the harvest double in these countries. These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Therefore, several authors have challenged the apparent superiority of HYVs not only compared to the traditional varieties alone, but by contrasting the monocultural system associated with HYVs with the polycultural system associated with traditional ones. Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers , pesticides and herbicides and rely on machines, which as of rely on or are derived from crude oil , making agriculture increasingly reliant on crude oil extraction. Food security The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to assess because of the complexities involved in food systems. The world population has grown by about five billion  since the beginning of the Green Revolution and many believe that, without the Revolution, there would have been greater famine and malnutrition. One claim involves the shift of subsistence-oriented cropland to cropland oriented towards production of grain for export or animal feed. For example, the Green Revolution replaced much of the land used for pulses that fed Indian peasants for wheat, which did not make up a large portion of the peasant diet. Such concerns often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is unsustainable,  and argue that humanity is now in a state of overpopulation or overshoot with regards to the sustainable carrying capacity and ecological demands on the Earth. Although 36 million people die each year as a direct or indirect result of hunger and poor nutrition,  Malthus's more extreme predictions have frequently failed to materialize. In Thomas Malthus made his prediction of impending famine. Ehrlich , in his book The Population Bomb , said that "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by " and "Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs. In his Nobel lecture he repeatedly presented improvements in food production within a sober understanding of the context of population. If fully implemented, the revolution can provide sufficient food for sustenance during the next three decades. But the frightening power of human reproduction must also be curbed; otherwise the success of the green revolution will be ephemeral only. Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the "Population Monster" Since man is potentially a rational being, however, I am confident that within the next two decades he will recognize the self-destructive course he steers along the road of irresponsible population growth King Hubbert 's prediction of world petroleum production rates. Modern agriculture is largely reliant on petroleum energy. For example, Harvard professor Amartya Sen wrote that large historic famines were not caused by decreases in food supply, but by socioeconomic dynamics and a failure of public action. Altieri , a pioneer of agroecology and peasant-advocate , writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures. According to Emile Frison of Bioversity International , the Green Revolution has also led to a change in dietary habits, as fewer people are affected by hunger and die from starvation, but many are affected by malnutrition such as iron or vitamin-A deficiencies. These were nutritious food sources for many poor Filipino farmers prior to the introduction of pesticides, further impacting the diets of locals. Citing internal Foundation documents, Dowie states that the Ford Foundation had a greater concern than Rockefeller in this area. In countries such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological solutions were sought as an alternative to expanding agrarian reform initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist politics. Smaller farmers often went into debt , which in many cases results in a loss of their farmland. Because some regions were able to adopt Green Revolution agriculture more readily than others for political or geographical reasons , interregional economic disparities increased as well. Many small farmers are hurt by the dropping prices resulting from increased production overall. This is a criticism held by many small producers in the food sovereignty movement. The new economic difficulties of small holder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration. The increase in food production led to a cheaper food for urban dwellers, and the increase in urban population increased the potential for industrialization.
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