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South Northern — spoken in east Angus and the Mearns. It is also known as the "border tongue" or "border Scots". Ulster Scots — spoken primarily by the descendants of Scottish settlers in Ulster , particularly counties Antrim , Down and Donegal. Also known as "Ullans". The southern extent of Scots may be identified by the range of a number of pronunciation features which set Scots apart from neighbouring English dialects. Like many languages across borders there is a dialect continuum between Scots and the Northumbrian dialect , both descending from early northern Middle English. The greater part of the valley of the Esk and the whole of Liddesdale have been considered to be northern English dialects by some, Scots by others. From the nineteenth century onwards influence from the South through education and increased mobility have caused Scots features to retreat northwards so that for all practical purposes the political and linguistic boundaries may be considered to coincide. In Aberdeen , Mid Northern Scots is spoken by a minority. Due to their being roughly near the border between the two dialects, places like Dundee and Perth can contain elements and influences of both Northern and Central Scots. Orthography[ edit ] Currently, there is no official standard orthography for modern Scots,  but most words have generally accepted spellings. During the 15th and 16th centuries, when Scots was a state language, the Makars had a loose spelling system separate from that of English. However, by the beginning of the 18th century, Scots was beginning to be regarded "as a rustic dialect of English, rather than a national language". Scots poet Allan Ramsay "embarked on large-scale anglicisation of Scots spelling". Successors of Ramsay—such as Robert Fergusson , Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott —tended to follow his spelling ideas, and the general trend throughout the 18th and 19th centuries was to adopt further spellings from English, as it was the only accessible standard. Although descended from the Scots of the Makars, 18thth century Scots abandoned some of the more distinctive old Scots spellings  for standard English ones; although from the rhymes it was clear that a Scots pronunciation was intended. It is described in the Manual of Modern Scots. Some writers created their own spelling systems to represent their own dialects, rather than following the pan-dialect conventions of modern literary Scots. In the second half of the 20th century a number of spelling reform proposals were presented. Commenting on this, John Corbett Most proposals entailed regularising the use of established 18thth century conventions and avoiding the 'apologetic apostrophe'. Other proposals sought to undo the influence of standard English conventions on Scots spelling, by reviving Middle Scots conventions or introducing new ones. A step towards standardizing Scots spelling was taken at a meeting of the Makar's Club in Edinburgh in , where the Scots Style Sheet was approved. Some of its suggestions are as follows: They represent a consensus view of writers in Scots at the time, following several years of debate and consultation involving Alexander Scott , Adam Jack Aitken , David Murison, Alastair Mackie and others. A developed version of the Style Sheet, it is based on the old spellings of the Makars but seeks to preserve the familiar appearance of written Scots. It includes all of the Style Sheet's suggestions, but recommends that writers return to the more traditional -aw, rather than -aa. Some of its other suggestions are as follows: It prefers a number of more phonetic spellings that were commonly used by medieval Makars, such as: Purves has also published dozens of poems using the spellings. In the Scots Spelling Committee report was published in Lallans.
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