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Global African History Listed below are major documents that help explain the history of African America. Louisiana's Code Noir These laws were among the earliest and most detailed regulations on the North American continent designed to govern both slaves and free blacks. The Deleted Passage of the Declaration of Independence This controversial passage of the Declaration authored by Thomas Jefferson condemning slavery was removed by the Continental Congress delegates gathered at Philadelphia. The Fugitive Slave Act This measure passed by Congress was one of the first examples of federal legislation regarding the institution of slavery. As its constitution shows, the Society was dedicated to the spread of Christianity across Africa and among people of African descent, and the abolition of the slave trade. The Ohio Black Codes Ohio becomes the first non-slaveholding state to establish black codes to govern persons of African ancestry living within its boaders. Congress ends the legal importation of enslaved persons of African ancestry into the United States. Here is the founding constitution of one of the first black women's organizations in the United States. In African American women in Salem, Massachusetts organized the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Salem, the first abolitionist society sponsored exclusively by black women. Here is their founding constitution. The Gag Rule This act prohibits Congress from receiving petitions related to slavery. Supreme Court rules that Africans on board the ship The Amistad are free individuals; kidnapped and transported illegally; they had never been slaves. Supreme Court rules that state officials are not required to capture fugitive slaves. The Massachusetts State Judicial Supreme Court dismisses the suit filed by Boston parent Benjamin Roberts challenging his daughter's assignment to a racially segregated school. The Fugitive Slave Act This measure, part of the Compromise of , gave far more power to slave catchers and Northern law enforcement officials in capturing fugitive slaves. The Utah Slave Code: An Act in Relation to Service Supreme Court rules that enslaved people are property protected by law in every state, that the enslaved are not entitled to use the courts, and that enslaved people and their descendants can never be citizens. The District of Columbia Emancipation Act This Congresstional measure freed all enslaved people in the District of Columbia. The Emancipation Proclamation This proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, , freed all enslaved people in the Confederate States or portions of those states that were not then controlled by Union forces. From that point forward the Union Army would free slaves. Sherman's Special Field Order No. This measure gave more than , acres of coastal land in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to formerly enslaved people. The Reconstruction Amendments The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U. Constitution abolish slavery, declare former enslaved people citizens of the nation and give former enslaved males the right to vote. Tennessee Segregation Jim Crow Laws, This document lists all of the racially restricted legislation passed by the State of Tennessee during the 89 year Jim Crow era in that state. The Civil Rights Act This act of Congress was the first attempt to protect the civil rights of the newly freed African Americans. The Mississippi Black Codes These are among the first post-Civil War statutes designed to establish the rights and regulate the behavior of ex-slaves at the state level. The Reconstruction Acts The Slaughter House Cases The Civil Rights Act of Congress attempts to provide a number of rights to African American during the Reconstruction era. Supreme Court holds that states cannot require carriers engaged in interstate commerce to provide integrated facilities even for trips within state borders. Supreme Court rules that excluding African Americans from juries is unconstitutional. The Civil Rights Cases Supreme Court rules Congress does not have the authority to restrict segregation in public accommodations and public conveyances. The decision curtails the Civil Rights Act of The Michigan Supreme Court ruled that William Ferguson's civil rights were violated when he was expelled from a Detroit restaurant for refusing to dine in its "colored" section. Second Morrill Act As with the first Morrill Act , this measure allocated money from the sale of public lands to support state colleges. This act, however, specifically provided funds to support black colleges and universities. Supreme court upholds the validity of a Louisiana statute requiring separation of white and black races in railway coaches. Supreme Court rules that poll taxes and literacy tests do not violate the Constitution. The Louisiana Grandfather Clause This amendment to Louisiana's Constitution effectively prohibited most African American males from voting in that state's elections. William Hannibal Thomas on the American Negro In this document, Conservative William Hannibal Thomas stakes out the problems and challenges facing African Americans at the dawn of the 20th century. Supreme Court Decision strikes down the Grandfather Clause. Supreme Court in a Louisville case rules that states and municipalities cannot mandate residential segregation. The Universal Negro Improvement Association, with an estimated two million members, was the largest black-controlled organization in the world in the early s. Here is its Constitution. Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill The Negro Art Hokum Schulyer gives a scathing critique, rejecting the idea that the race of black artists had any influence over their work. Supreme Court rules that the Scottsboro defendants must be retried because Alabama officials violated the 14th Amendment by denying them adequate legal counsel. The Supreme Court again overturns the conviction of a Scottsboro defendant. Thurgood Marshall argues for the appellant Murray, an early civil rights victory for the future Supreme Court Justice. Supreme Court rules that states must provide equal, even if separate, educational facilities for African Americans. Executive Order This order by President Franklin D. Roosevelt bans racial, ethnic and religious discrimination in hiring in all industrial facilities receiving federal contracts. This order reaffirms and broadens the Fair Employment Practices Committee which was established with Executive Order It also specifically prohibits all federal government agencies from practicing racial discrimination in hiring. Commonwealth of Virginia Supreme Court rules that segregation on interstate buses is unconstitutional. To Secure These Rights This is the report of President Harry S. Truman's Committe on Civil Rights. This order by President Harry S. Truman desegregates the U. Supreme Court rules that racially restrictive housing covenants are unenforceable. Oklahoma State Board of Regents Supreme Court decides in an Oklahoma case that states must admit qualified African Americans to previously all-white graduate schools when no comparable black institutions are available. The Negro Motorist Green Book This is the complete edition of the book used by African American motorists to find accommodations across the nation which accepted black travelers during the era of racial segregation. Supreme Court rules in a Texas case that states must make equal educational facilities available to African American graduate and professional students. Supreme Court rules against classroom and social segregation on the basis of race. Supreme Court rules railroad dining car segregation is unequal treatment and thus violates the Interstate Commerce Act. Board of Education This unanimous Supreme Court decision declared unconstitutional all school segregation mandated by state law. Board of Education, II This ruling is a reiteration of the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education although in this instance mandating that school desegregation proceed "with all deliberate speed. During her later years she became supporter of conservative causes. In this letter to the Orlando Sentinel on August 11, , she criticizes the Brown v. Board of Education decision that ordered the desegregation of public schools. Supreme Court upholds a lower court ruling banning segregation on Montgomery, Alabama buses. This measure, the first civil rights legislation enacted since Reconstruction, provides guarantees for African American voting rights in the South. The Act also creates the U. Civil Rights Commission to investigate issues regarding race relations and racial discrimination. Alabama Ex Rel Patterson
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