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Branchless banking and Contactless payment In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet. Eventually, the idea spread and in , the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart. Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication NFC. Cellphone surveillance and Mobile phone tracking Mobile phones are commonly used to collect location data. While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily whether it is being used or not using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the mobile phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. Both the SIM card and the handset can be tracked. They possess technology that enables them to activate the microphones in mobile phones remotely in order to listen to conversations which take place near the phone. A sign in the U. It is widely considered dangerous due to distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In March , a U. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal, and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free use of a mobile phone which uses a speakerphone is banned. In other countries, including the UK and France and in many U. A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. This has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a phone call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav. A study reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety. New Zealand has banned hand-held cell phone use since 1 November Many states in the United States have banned texting on cell phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile communication devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between when first law was passed, through December 1, The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated e. Nomophobia and Mobile phone overuse The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent[ when? Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans. The majority of this research shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive. Other digital wireless systems , such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. Lennart Hardell and other authors of a meta-analysis of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years "approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same 'ipsilateral' side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use". Mobile phone manufacturers within Europe are subject to the WEEE directive , and Australia has introduced a mobile phone recycling scheme. Anyone can report their phone as lost or stolen with their Telecom Carrier, and the IMEI would be blacklisted with a central registry. There are, however, a number of ways to circumvent a blacklist. One method is to send the phone to a country where the telecom carriers are not required to implement the blacklisting and sell it there,  another involves altering the phone's IMEI number. New standards beyond 4G are currently being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Conflict minerals See also: Conflict minerals Demand for metals used in mobile phones and other electronics fuelled the Second Congo War , which claimed almost 5. The profits from the minerals finance the bloodiest conflict since the second world war; the war has lasted nearly 20 years and has recently flared up again. For the last 15 years, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been a major source of natural resources for the mobile phone industry.
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