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Pakistan[ edit ] Fast food In Pakistan varies. In addition to the international chains, in local cuisine people in Pakistan like to have biryani , bun kebabs , Nihari , kebab rolls etc. There are also local chains like Teremok specializing in Russian cuisine or having elements of it added into their menu. Siu mei is offered throughout the day. Domino's Pizza is also a popular fast food restaurant. Chains like McDonald's offer kosher branches. Non-kosher foods such as cheeseburgers are rare in Israeli fast food chains, even in non-kosher branches. There are many small local fast food chains that serve pizza , hamburgers , sushi and local foods such as hummus , falafel and shawarma. Burger King and Domino's entered the market later in the s. A few fast food chains have been founded in New Zealand, including Burger Fuel founded , Georgie Pie founded , but closed after falling into financial trouble and being bought out by McDonald's and Hell Pizza founded Philippines[ edit ] In the Philippines, fast-food is the same as in the US. However, the only difference is that they serve Filipino dishes and a few American products being served Filipino-style. Jollibee is the leading fast food chain in the country with 1, stores nationwide. Franchising[ edit ] A fast food chain restaurant is generally owned either by the parent company of the fast food chain or a franchisee — an independent party given the right to use the company's trademark and trade name. In the latter case, a contract is made between the franchisee and the parent company, typically requiring the franchisee to pay an initial, fixed fee in addition to a continual percentage of monthly sales. Upon opening for business, the franchisee oversees the day-to-day operations of the restaurant and acts as a manager of the store. Once the contract expires, the parent company may choose to "renew the contract, sell the franchise to another franchisee, or operate the restaurant itself. Fast food chains rely on consistency and uniformity, in internal operations and brand image, across all of their restaurant locations in order to convey a sense of reliability to their customers. This sense of reliability coupled with a positive customer experience brings customers to place trust in the company. This sense of trust leads to increased customer loyalty which gives the company a source of recurring business. When a person is presented with a choice of different restaurants to eat at, it is much easier for them to stick with what they know, rather than to take a gamble and dive into the unknown. Parent companies often rely on field representatives to ensure that the practices of franchised locations are consistent with the company's standards. However, the more locations a fast food chain has, the harder it is for the parent company to guarantee that these standards are being followed. Moreover, it is much more expensive to discharge a franchisee for noncompliance with company standards, than it is to discharge an employee for that same reason. As a consequence, parent companies tend to deal with franchisee violations in a more relaxed manner. The interior design, the menu, the speed of service, and the taste of the food will all be very similar. However, some differences do exist to tailor to particular cultural differences. For example, in October during a midst of plummeting sales in Japan, McDonald's added a shrimp burger to the Japanese menu. Because non-consumption of beef is a cultural norm in light of India's Dharmic beliefs, Taco Bell had to tailor its menu to the dietary distinctions of Indian culture by replacing all of the beef with chicken. By the same token, completely meatless options were introduced to the menu due to the prevalence of vegetarianism throughout the country. However, some people see these moves as a tokenistic and commercial measure, rather than an appropriate reaction to ethical concerns about the world ecology and people's health. McDonald's announced that in March , the chain would include nutritional information on the packaging of all of its products. The products contained Starlink genetically modified corn that was not approved for human consumption. Consumer appeal[ edit ] The interior of a fast food restaurant in Sheung Wan , Hong Kong Fast food outlets have become popular with consumers for several reasons. One is that through economies of scale in purchasing and producing food, these companies can deliver food to consumers at a very low cost. In addition, although some people dislike fast food for its predictability, it can be reassuring to a hungry person in a hurry or far from home. Prior to the rise of the fast food chain restaurant, people generally had a choice between greasy spoon diners where the quality of the food was often questionable and service lacking, or high-end restaurants that were expensive and impractical for families with children[ citation needed ]. The modern, stream-lined convenience of the fast food restaurant provided a new alternative and appealed to Americans' instinct for ideas and products associated with progress, technology, and innovation. Parents could have a few minutes of peace while children played or amused themselves with the toys included in their Happy Meal. There is a long history of fast food advertising campaigns, many of which are directed at children. Fast food marketing largely focuses on children and teenagers. Popular methods of advertising include television, product placement in toys, games, educational materials, songs, and movies, character licensing and celebrity endorsements, and websites. To deny a child "desirable things" such as the advertised fast food restaurant can cause stigmatization of parents as the "mean parent" when it is common among other parents to comply with their child's desires. There are two basic requirements identified in the guidelines for foods that are advertised for children: The guidelines are voluntary but companies experience heavy pressure to comply. Once a company complies they have 5—10 years to comply with the guidelines. Although many companies have ways to go. In other parts of the world, American and American-style fast food outlets have been popular for their quality, customer service, and novelty, even though they are often the targets of popular anger towards American foreign policy or globalization more generally[ citation needed ]. Many consumers nonetheless see them as symbols of the wealth, progress, and well-ordered openness of Western society and they therefore become trendy attractions in many cities around the world, particularly among younger people with more varied tastes. According to US research, low-income and predominantly African-American neighborhoods have greater exposure to fast food outlets than higher income and predominantly white areas. It has also been shown that there is a lower chance of finding a fast food restaurant in a suburban neighborhood. In a study of selected US locations, Morland et al. Walter Scott of Providence, RI outfitted a horse-drawn lunch wagon with a simple kitchen, bringing hot dinners to workers  Walter Anderson built the first White Castle in Wichita, KS in , introducing the limited menu, high volume, low cost, high speed hamburger restaurant  White Castle opens its first restaurant Maid-Rite opened its first restaurant in Muscatine, Iowa. Howard Johnson's pioneered the concept of franchising restaurants, formally standardizing menus, signage, and advertising  In-N-Out Burger begins drive-through service utilizing call-box technology McDonald's opens its first restaurants outside the US. The first Starbucks store opens in Seattle, Washington in Pike Place Market to sell high-quality coffee beans and equipment Arby's offers nutritional information Howard Schultz leads purchase of the Starbucks brand from its founders who adopted the name Peet's and begins offering coffee drinks modeled after those sold in Italian coffee bars McDonald's begins "supersizing" Extra Value Meals Arctic Circle becomes the first fast food restaurant to sell Angus beef exclusively. Arby's is first fast food restaurant to implement a no-smoking policy McDonald's cuts back on the amount of trans fat by 48 percent on french fries Halal[ edit ] The introduction of the halal option by some fast food companies saw the expansion of fast food chains into Muslim majority countries has resulted in a rise of restaurant options in non-western nations and has also increased revenue for some western restaurant chains. McDonald's carried out a trial but decided that the cost of operations would be too high. A number of fast food worker strikes occurred in the United States in the s. In his best-selling book Fast Food Nation , investigative journalist Eric Schlosser leveled a broad, socioeconomic critique against the fast food industry, documenting how fast food rose from small, family-run businesses like the McDonald brothers' burger joint into large, multinational corporate juggernauts whose economies of scale radically transformed agriculture, meat processing, and labor markets in the late twentieth century. Schlosser argues that while the innovations of the fast food industry gave Americans more and cheaper dining options, it has come at the price of destroying the environment, economy, and small-town communities of rural America while shielding consumers from the real costs of their convenient meal, both in terms of health and the broader impact of large-scale food production and processing on workers, animals, and land. The fast food industry is popular in the United States, the source of most of its innovation, and many major international chains are based there. Seen as symbols of US dominance and perceived cultural imperialism , American fast food franchises have often been the target of Anti-globalization protests and demonstrations against the US government. In , for example, rioters in Karachi , Pakistan , who were initially angered because of the bombing of a Shiite mosque, destroyed a KFC restaurant. By manipulating food's taste, sugar and fat content, and directing their advertising to children, the suit argued that the company purposely misleads the public about the nutritional value of its product. A judge dismissed the case, but the fast food industry disliked the publicity of its practices, particularly the way it targets children in its advertising. The law was reintroduced in , only to meet the same fate. This law was claimed to "[ban] frivolous lawsuits against producers and sellers of food and non-alcoholic drinks arising from obesity claims.
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