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Diamond Created From Human Remains
Secondary cremation Bronze container of ancient cremated human remains, complete with votive offering Cremation dates from at least 42, years ago in the archaeological record, with the Mungo Lady , the remains of a partly cremated body found at Lake Mungo , Australia. In the Middle East and Europe, both burial and cremation are evident in the archaeological record in the Neolithic era. Cultural groups had their own preferences and prohibitions. The ancient Egyptians developed an intricate transmigration-of-soul theology, which prohibited cremation. This was also widely adopted by Semitic peoples. The Babylonians, according to Herodotus , embalmed their dead. Early Persians practiced cremation, but this became prohibited during the Zoroastrian Period. Phoenicians practiced both cremation and burial. Cremation appeared around the 12th century BCE, constituting a new practice of burial, probably influenced by Anatolia. Until the Christian era, when inhumation again became the only burial practice, both combustion and inhumation had been practiced, depending on the era and location. In Europe, there are traces of cremation dating to the Early Bronze Age c. The custom became dominant throughout Bronze Age Europe with the Urnfield culture from c. In the Iron Age , inhumation again becomes more common, but cremation persisted in the Villanovan culture and elsewhere. Homer 's account of Patroclus ' burial describes cremation with subsequent burial in a tumulus , similar to Urnfield burials, and qualifying as the earliest description of cremation rites. This may be an anachronism, as during Mycenaean times burial was generally preferred, and Homer may have been reflecting the more common use of cremation at the time the Iliad was written, centuries later. The Aztec emperor Ahuitzotl being cremated. Surrounding him are a necklace of jade and gold, an ornament of quetzal feathers, a copilli crown , his name glyph and three slaves to be sacrificed to accompany him in the afterlife. Criticism of burial rites is a common form of aspersion by competing religions and cultures, including the association of cremation with fire sacrifice or human sacrifice. Hinduism and Jainism are notable for not only allowing but prescribing cremation. Cremation in India is first attested in the Cemetery H culture from c. The Rigveda contains a reference to the emerging practice, in RV Cremation remained common but not universal, in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome. According to Cicero , in Rome, inhumation was considered the more archaic rite, while the most honoured citizens were most typically cremated—especially upper classes and members of imperial families. The rise of Christianity saw an end to cremation, being influenced by its roots in Judaism, the belief in the resurrection of the body, and following the example of Christ's burial. Anthropologists have been able to track the advance of Christianity throughout Europe with the appearance of cemeteries. By the 5th century, with the spread of Christianity, the practice of burning bodies gradually disappeared from Europe. In early Roman Britain , cremation was usual but diminished by the 4th century. It then reappeared in the 5th and 6th centuries during the migration era, when sacrificed animals were sometimes included with the human bodies on the pyre, and the deceased were dressed in costume and with ornaments for the burning. That custom was also very widespread among the Germanic peoples of the northern continental lands from which the Anglo-Saxon migrants are supposed to have been derived, during the same period. These ashes were usually thereafter deposited in a vessel of clay or bronze in an "urn cemetery". The custom again died out with the Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons or Early English during the 7th century, when Christian burial became general. For example, the body of John Wycliff was exhumed years after his death and burned to ashes, with the ashes thrown in a river,  explicitly as a posthumous punishment for his denial of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. October Learn how and when to remove this template message The Woking Crematorium , built in as the first facility in England after a long campaign led by the Cremation Society of Great Britain. The first to advocate for the use of cremation was the physician Sir Thomas Browne in Honoretta Brooks Pratt became the first recorded cremated European individual in modern times when she died on 26 September and was illegally cremated at the burial ground on Hanover Square in London. In the idea was presented to the Medical International Congress of Florence by Professors Coletti and Castiglioni "in the name of public health and civilization". In addition, he believed, cremation would prevent premature burial, reduce the expense of funerals, spare mourners the necessity of standing exposed to the weather during interment, and urns would be safe from vandalism. The first duty of the Cremation Society was to ascertain whether cremation could be legally performed in the country, and then to construct a first crematorium. They first tested it on 17 March by cremating the body of a horse. However, the inhabitants of Woking showed strong antipathy to the crematorium, and appealed to the Home Secretary , Sir Richard Cross , to prohibit the use of the building. Price successfully argued in court that while the law did not state that cremation was legal, it also did not state that it was illegal. The case set a precedent that, together with the activities of the newly founded Cremation Society of Great Britain, led to the Cremation Act In , the first official cremation in the UK took place in Woking. The deceased was Mrs Jeannette C. Pickersgill , a well-known figure in literary and scientific circles. During , in which 28 cremations took place, the Cremation Society planned to provide a chapel, waiting rooms and other amenities there. In a crematorium opened in Manchester , followed by one in Glasgow in , Liverpool in and Birmingham Crematorium in The first modern crematory in the U. During that time it was thought that people were getting sick by attending funerals of those recently deceased and that decomposing bodies were leaking into the water systems. Cremation was used to destroy any organic matter that could cause illness and give families a better way to preserve ashes. As embalming became more widely accepted and used, crematories lost their sanitary edge. Not to be left behind, crematories had an idea of making cremation beautiful. They started building crematories with stained-glass windows and marble floors with frescoed walls. By , the cremation rate was CANA is the largest organization representing crematories and funeral homes in the U. Australians had their first purpose-built modern crematorium and chapel in the West Terrace Cemetery in the South Australian capital of Adelaide in This small building, resembling the buildings at Woking , remained largely unchanged from its 19th-century style and was in full operation until the late s. The oldest operating crematorium in Australia is at Rookwood Cemetery , in Sydney. It opened in In the Netherlands, the foundation of the Association for Optional Cremation  in ushered in a long debate about the merits and demerits of cremation. Laws against cremation were challenged and invalidated in two years after the construction of the first crematorium in the Netherlands , though cremation did not become legally recognised until The efficiency of industrialised killing of Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust produced too many corpses, therefore the crematoria manufactured to SS specifications were put into use in all of them to handle the disposals around the clock, day and night. Those of type I and II consist of 3 parts, i. A the furnace room; B the large halls; and C the gas chamber. A huge chimney rises from the furnace room around which are grouped nine furnaces, each having four openings. Each opening can take three normal corpses at once and after an hour and a half the bodies are completely burned. This corresponds to a daily capacity of about 2, bodies The ashes were taken out from the front side. These furnaces, based around a design commonly used for hospital incinerators, instead vented the gasses down through a series of ducts embedded in the floor, with the help of a draft fan located at the far end of the structure. Once outside, the gasses then rose through a free standing chimney, most notable for the fact that it was not directly attached to the structure of the building itself, nor had a visible duct leading into it. Modern cremation process[ edit ] An electric cremator in Austria The cremation occurs in a cremator that is housed within a crematorium and comprises one or more furnaces. A crematorium may be part of a chapel or a funeral home or may be an independent facility or a service offered by a cemetery. Refractory bricks are designed in several layers. The outermost layer is usually simply an insulation material, e. Inside is typically a layer of insulation brick, mostly calcium silicate in nature. Heavy duty cremators are usually designed with two layers of fire bricks inside the insulation layer. The layer of fire bricks in contact with the combustion process protects the outer layer and must be replaced from time to time. The container may be mounted on a charger motorised trolley that can quickly insert it, or on a fixed or movable hopper that allows the container to slide into the cremator. This is sometimes done for religious reasons, such as in traditional Hindu and Jain funerals. A cremator is not used. The process is described by its inventors as more ecologically favorable than other forms of cremation. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message A relic found amid the ashes of Chan Kusalo the Buddhist Patriarch of Northern Thailand is placed inside a chedi shaped vial and displayed inside Wat Chedi Luang in Chiang Mai. In the United States federal law does not dictate any container requirements for cremation. Certain states, however, may require an opaque or non-transparent container of all cremations. This can be a simple corrugated-cardboard box or a wooden casket coffin. Most casket manufacturers provide lines of caskets that are specially built for cremation. After the funeral service, the box is removed from the shell before cremation, permitting the shell to be re-used. The body is cremated with the coffin  which is why all British coffins that are to be used for cremation must be combustible. The Code of Cremation Practice  forbids the opening of the coffin once it has arrived at the crematorium, and rules stipulate that it must be cremated within 72 hours of the funeral service. When cremation is finished, the remains are passed through a magnetic field to remove any metal, which will be interred elsewhere in the crematorium grounds or, increasingly, recycled. The body is cremated in the coffin. A piece of fire clay with a number on it is used for identifying the remains of the dead body after burning. In Australia, the deceased is cremated in a coffin supplied by the undertaker. Handles if fitted are plastic and approved for use in a cremator. Coffins vary from natural cardboard and unfinished particle board covered with a velvet pall if there is a service to solid timber; most are veneered particle board. Delivery-only allows crematoria to schedule cremations to make best use of the cremators, perhaps by holding the body overnight in a refrigerator, allowing a lower fee to be charged.
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