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6 Steps To Recover The Love Of A Man Without Begging Him
Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesn't follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesn't, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Division. Joshua's soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and won the division title, so their goalie must be the best in the division. Domino See Slippery Slope. Double Standard There are many situations in which you should judge two things or people by the same standard. If in one of those situations you use different standards for the two, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Using a Double Standard. I know we will hire any man who gets over a 70 percent on the screening test for hiring Post Office employees, but women should have to get an 80 to be hired because they often have to take care of their children. This example is a fallacy if it can be presumed that men and women should have to meet the same standard for becoming a Post Office employee. Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term that occurs twice during the reasoning; it is the use of one word taken in two ways. The fallacy is a kind of Fallacy of Ambiguity. Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too. The term "nobody" changes its meaning without warning in the passage. Equivocation can sometimes be very difficult to detect, as in this argument from Walter Burleigh: If I call you a swine, then I call you an animal. Etymological The Etymological Fallacy occurs whenever someone falsely assumes that the meaning of a word can be discovered from its etymology or origins. The word "vise" comes from the Latin "that which winds," so it means anything that winds. Since a hurricane winds around its own eye, it is a vise. Every and All The Fallacy of Every and All turns on errors due to the order or scope of the quantifiers "every" and "all" and "any. Every action of ours has some final end. So, there is some common final end to all our actions. In proposing this fallacious argument, Aristotle believed the common end is the supreme good, so he had a rather optimistic outlook on the direction of history. Exaggeration When we overstate or overemphasize a point that is a crucial step in a piece of reasoning, then we are guilty of the Fallacy of Exaggeration. This is a kind of error called Lack of Proportion. She's practically admitted that she intentionally yelled at that student while on the playground in the fourth grade. Then she said nothing when the teacher asked, "Who did that? Do you want to elect as secretary of this club someone who is a known liar prone to assault? Doing so would be a disgrace to our Collie Club. When we exaggerate in order to make a joke, though, we do not use the fallacy because we do not intend to be taken literally. False Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar. When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy. See also Faulty Comparison. The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances, too. False Balance A specific form of the False Equivalence Fallacy that occurs in the context of news reporting, in which the reporter misleads the audience by suggesting the evidence on two sides of an issue is equally balanced, when the reporter knows that one of the two sides is an extreme outlier. Reporters regularly commit this fallacy in order to appear "fair and balanced. The news report of the yesterday's city council meeting says, "David Samsung challenged the council by saying the Gracie Mansion is haunted, so it should not be torn down. Councilwoman Miranda Gonzales spoke in favor of dismantling the old mansion saying its land is needed for an expansion of the water treatment facility. Both sides seemed quite fervent in promoting their position. False Cause Improperly concluding that one thing is a cause of another. My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter. False Dilemma A reasoner who unfairly presents too few choices and then implies that a choice must be made among this short menu of choices is using the False Dilemma Fallacy, as does the person who accepts this faulty reasoning. A pollster asks you this question about your job: The pollster is committing the fallacy by limiting you to only those choices. What about the choice of "no times per week"? Think of the unpleasant choices as being the horns of a bull that is charging toward you. By demanding other choices beyond those on the unfairly limited menu, you thereby "go between the horns" of the dilemma, and are not gored. A form of the Fallacy of Suppressed Evidence. A popular science article suggests there is no consensus about the Earth's age, by quoting one geologist who says she believes the Earth is billions of years old, and then by quoting Bible expert James Ussher who says he calculated from the Bible that the world began on Friday, October 28, 4, B. The article suppresses the evidence that geologists who are the relevant experts on this issue have reached a consensus that the Earth is billions of years old. Far-Fetched Hypothesis This is the fallacy of offering a bizarre far-fetched hypothesis as the correct explanation without first ruling out more mundane explanations. Look at that mutilated cow in the field, and see that flattened grass. Aliens must have landed in a flying saucer and savaged the cow to learn more about the beings on our planet. Faulty Comparison If you try to make a point about something by comparison, and if you do so by comparing it with the wrong thing, then your reasoning uses the Fallacy of Faulty Comparison or the Fallacy of Q uestionable Analogy. We gave half the members of the hiking club Durell hiking boots and the other half good-quality tennis shoes. After three months of hiking, you can see for yourself that Durell lasted longer. You, too, should use Durell when you need hiking boots. Shouldn't Durell hiking boots be compared with other hiking boots, not with tennis shoes? Faulty Generalization A fallacy produced by some error in the process of generalizing. See Hasty Generalization or Unrepresentative Generalization for examples. Faulty Motives An irrelevant appeal to the motives of the arguer, and supposing that this revelation of their motives will thereby undermine their reasoning. A kind of Ad Hominem Fallacy. The councilman's argument for the new convention center can't be any good because he stands to gain if it's built. Formal Formal fallacies are all the cases or kinds of reasoning that fail to be deductively valid. Formal fallacies are also called Logical Fallacies or Invalidities. Some cats are tigers. Some tigers are animals. So, some cats are animals. This might at first seem to be a good argument, but actually it is fallacious because it has the same logical form as the following more obviously invalid argument: Some women are Americans. Some Americans are men. So, some women are men. Nearly all the infinity of types of invalid inferences have no specific fallacy names. Four Terms The Fallacy of Four Terms quaternio terminorum occurs when four rather than three categorical terms are used in a standard-form syllogism. All rivers have banks. All banks have vaults. So, all rivers have vaults. The word "banks" occurs as two distinct terms, namely river bank and financial bank, so this example also is an equivocation. Without an equivocation, the four term fallacy is trivially invalid. Gambler's This fallacy occurs when the gambler falsely assumes that the history of outcomes will affect future outcomes. I know this is a fair coin, but it has come up heads five times in a row now, so tails is due on the next toss. The fallacious move was to conclude that the probability of the next toss coming up tails must be more than a half. The assumption that it's a fair coin is important because, if the coin comes up heads five times in a row, one would otherwise become suspicious that it's not a fair coin and therefore properly conclude that the probably is high that heads is more likely on the next toss. Genetic A critic uses the Genetic Fallacy if the critic attempts to discredit or support a claim or an argument because of its origin genesis when such an appeal to origins is irrelevant. Whatever your reasons are for buying that gift, they've got to be ridiculous. You said yourself that you got the idea for buying it from last night's fortune cookie. The speaker is using the Genetic Fallacy by paying too much attention to the genesis of the idea rather than to the reasons offered for it. If I learn that your plan for building the shopping center next to the Johnson estate originated with Johnson himself, who is likely to profit from the deal, then my pointing out to the planning commission the origin of the deal would be relevant in their assessing your plan. Because not all appeals to origins are irrelevant, it sometimes can be difficult to decide if the Genetic Fallacy has been used. For example, if Sigmund Freud shows that the genesis of a person's belief in God is their desire for a strong father figure, then does it follow that their belief in God is misplaced, or is Freud's reasoning committing the Genetic Fallacy? Group Think A reasoner uses the Group Think Fallacy if he or she substitutes pride of membership in the group for reasons to support the group's policy. If that's what our group thinks, then that's good enough for me. It's what I think, too. The fallacy occurs when we unfairly try to change the issue to be about the speaker's circumstances rather than about the speaker's actual argument. Also called "Ad Hominem, Circumstantial. Secretary of State Dean Acheson is too soft on communism, as you can see by his inviting so many fuzzy-headed liberals to his White House cocktail parties. Has any evidence been presented here that Acheson's actions are inappropriate in regards to communism?
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