10 characteristics of a good driver. Headphones.

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10 characteristics of a good driver

Moving-coil[ edit ] A typical moving-coil headphone transducer The moving coil driver , more commonly referred to as a "dynamic" driver is the most common type used in headphones. It consists of a stationary magnet element affixed to the frame of the headphone, which sets up a static magnetic field. The magnet in headphones is typically composed of ferrite or neodymium. A voice coil , a light coil of wire, is suspended in the magnetic field of the magnet, attached to a diaphragm, typically fabricated from lightweight, high-stiffness-to-mass-ratio cellulose, polymer, carbon material, paper or the like. When the varying current of an audio signal is passed through the coil, it creates a varying magnetic field that reacts against the static magnetic field, exerting a varying force on the coil causing it and the attached diaphragm to vibrate. The vibrating diaphragm pushes on the air to produce sound waves. Electrostatic[ edit ] Electrostatic loudspeaker diagram Electrostatic drivers consist of a thin, electrically charged diaphragm, typically a coated PET film membrane, suspended between two perforated metal plates electrodes. The electrical sound signal is applied to the electrodes creating an electrical field; depending on the polarity of this field, the diaphragm is drawn towards one of the plates. Air is forced through the perforations; combined with a continuously changing electrical signal driving the membrane, a sound wave is generated. Electrostatic headphones are usually more expensive than moving-coil ones, and are comparatively uncommon. The high frequency response means that the low midband distortion level is maintained to the top of the audible frequency band, which is generally not the case with moving coil drivers. Also, the frequency response peakiness regularly seen in the high frequency region with moving coil drivers is absent. Well-designed electrostatic headphones can produce significantly better sound quality than other types. Since the invention of insulators, there's no actual danger. They do not need to deliver significant electric current , which further limits the electrical hazard to the wearer in case of fault. Electret[ edit ] An electret driver functions along the same electromechanical means as an electrostatic driver. However the electret driver has a permanent charge built into it, whereas electrostatics have the charge applied to the driver by an external generator. Electret and electrostatic headphones are relatively uncommon. Original electrets were also typically cheaper and lower in technical capability and fidelity than electrostatics. Patent applications from have been approved that show by using different materials, i. When these new improved electrets are combined with a traditional dome headphone driver, headphones can be produced that are recognised by the Japan Audio Society as worthy of joining the Hi Res Audio program. US patents 8,, B2. Orthodynamic[ edit ] Orthodynamic also known as Planar Magnetic headphones use similar technology to electrostatic headphones, with some fundamental differences. They operate similarly to Planar Magnetic Loudspeakers. An orthodynamic driver consists of a relatively large membrane that contains an embedded wire pattern. This membrane is suspended between two sets of permanent, oppositely aligned, magnets. A current passed through the wires embedded in the membrane produces a magnetic field that reacts with the field of the permanent magnets to induce movement in the membrane, which produces sound. Balanced armature[ edit ] Balanced armature transducer with armature balanced and exerting no force on diaphragm A balanced armature is a sound transducer design primarily intended to increase the electrical efficiency of the element by eliminating the stress on the diaphragm characteristic of many other magnetic transducer systems. As shown schematically in the first diagram, it consists of a moving magnetic armature that is pivoted so it can move in the field of the permanent magnet. When precisely centered in the magnetic field there is no net force on the armature, hence the term 'balanced. Headphone designs often use multiple balanced armatures to provide a higher fidelity sound. The design is not mechanically stable; a slight imbalance makes the armature stick to one pole of the magnet. A fairly stiff restoring force is required to hold the armature in the 'balance' position. Although this reduces its efficiency, this design can still produce more sound from less power than any other[ clarification needed ]. Popularized in the s as Baldwin Mica Diaphragm radio headphones, balanced armature transducers were refined during World War II for use in military sound powered telephones. Today they are typically used only in in-ear headphones and hearing aids, where their high efficiency and diminutive size is a major advantage. Higher-end models may employ multiple armature drivers, dividing the frequency ranges between them using a passive crossover network. A few combine an armature driver with a small moving-coil driver for increased bass output. The earliest loudspeakers for radio receivers used balanced armature drivers for their cones. In a carbon nanotube thin-yarn earphone based on the thermoacoustic mechanism was demonstrated by a research group in Tsinghua University. Such a chip is composed of a layer of CNT thin yarn array supported by the silicon wafer, and periodic grooves with certain depth are made on the wafer by micro-fabrication methods to suppress the heat leakage from the CNT yarn to the substrate. Piezoelectric film headphones were first developed by Pioneer, their two models used a flat sheet of film that limited the maximum volume of air movement. Currently, TakeT produces a piezoelectric film headphone shaped similarly to an AMT transducer but, which like the Precide driver, has a variation in the size of transducer folds over the diaphragm. The folded shape of a diaphragm allows a transducer with a larger surface area to fit within smaller space constraints. This increases the total volume of air that can be moved on each excursion of the transducer given that radiating area. Magnetostriction headphones, sometimes sold under the label Bonephones, work by vibrating against the side of head, transmitting sound via bone conduction. This is particularly helpful in situations where the ears must be unobstructed, or for people who are deaf for reasons that don't affect the nervous apparatus of hearing. Magnetostriction headphones though, are limited in their fidelity compared to conventional headphones that rely on the normal workings of the ear. Additionally, in the early s, a French company called Plasmasonics tried to market a plasma-ionisation headphone. There are no known functioning examples left. Benefits and limitations[ edit ] Two Sony MDR-V6 headphones, one folded for travel Headphones can prevent other people from hearing the sound, either for privacy or to prevent disturbing others, as in listening in a public library. They can also provide a level of sound fidelity greater than loudspeakers of similar cost. Part of their ability to do so comes from the lack of any need to perform room correction treatments with headphones. While a loudspeaker must use a relatively large often 15" or 18" speaker driver to reproduce low frequencies, headphones can accurately reproduce bass and sub-bass frequencies with speaker drivers only millimeters wide or much smaller, as is the case with in-ear monitor headphones. Headphones' impressive low-frequency performance is possible because they are so much closer to the ear that they only need to move relatively small volumes of air. Although modern headphones have been particularly widely sold and used for listening to stereo recordings since the release of the Walkman , there is subjective debate regarding the nature of their reproduction of stereo sound. Stereo recordings represent the position of horizontal depth cues stereo separation via volume and phase differences of the sound in question between the two channels. When the sounds from two speakers mix, they create the phase difference the brain uses to locate direction. Through most headphones, because the right and left channels do not combine in this manner, the illusion of the phantom center can be perceived as lost. Hard panned sounds are also heard only in one ear rather than from one side. They can produce a surprisingly lifelike spatial impression through headphones. Commercial recordings almost always use stereo recording, rather than binaural, because loudspeaker listening is more common than headphone listening. It is possible to change the spatial effects of stereo sound on headphones, to better approximate the presentation of speaker reproduction, by using frequency-dependent cross-feed between the channels. Headsets can have ergonomic benefits over traditional telephone handsets. They allow call center agents to maintain better posture without needing to hand-hold a handset or tilt their head sideways to cradle it. Automatic volume limiter Product testing - headphones in an anechoic chamber Using headphones at a sufficiently high volume level may cause temporary or permanent hearing impairment or deafness. The headphone volume often has to compete with the background noise , especially in loud places such as subway stations, aircraft, and large crowds. Koss introduced the "Safelite" line of cassette players in with such a warning light. The line was discontinued two years later for lack of interest. The government of France has imposed a limit on all music players sold in the country: The ear can normally detect 1-billionth of an atmosphere of sound pressure level, [30] hence it is incredibly sensitive. At very high sound pressure levels, muscles in the ear tighten the tympanic membrane and this leads to a small change in the geometry of the ossicles and stirrup that results in lower transfer of force to the oval window of the inner ear the acoustic reflex. The higher the volume, the faster hearing loss occurs. According to OSHA work safety guidelines, workers should be exposed to 90dBA noise for a maximum of 8 hours to avoid hearing loss. An increase to just 95dBA cuts the safe exposure to only 4 hours. But there is little specific consensus on the safe level of exposure. Additionally, an increase to 93dBA instead of 95dBA halves the safe exposure time to 4 hours. Noise cancelling headphones can be considered dangerous because of a lack of awareness the listener may have with their environment. Noise cancelling headphones are so effective that a person may not be able to hear oncoming traffic or pay attention to people around them. There is also a general danger that music in headphones can distract the listener and lead to dangerous situations. This has the additional undesirable effect of being dependent of the efficiency of the headphones; a device producing the maximum allowed power may not produce adequate volume when paired with low-efficiency, high-impedance equipment, while the same amount of power can reach dangerous levels with very efficient earphones. 10 characteristics of a good driver

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  1. The line was discontinued two years later for lack of interest. The practical limitation of horn length is explicitly not addressed by the theory of OSWG.

  2. Add a Comment No sign-up required Name. However, such findings underline some of the most difficult problems encountered in traffic safety research. Most manufacturers of active electronic audio crossovers responded to this requirement by adding an optional CD EQ boost filter or high frequency shelf filter.

  3. Driver performance relates to the driver's knowledge, skill, perceptual and cognitive abilities, as discussed in Chapter 8. This membrane is suspended between two sets of permanent, oppositely aligned, magnets.

  4. Horn loudspeakers are used in many audio applications. Additionally, in the early s, a French company called Plasmasonics tried to market a plasma-ionisation headphone. To reduce the size of the horn, the sound follows a zigzag path through exponentially expanding concentric ducts in the central projection b, c , emerging from the outer horn d.

  5. A common solution is to use two or more horns, each with the appropriate throat size, mouth size and flare rate for best performance in a selected frequency range, with sufficient overlap between the frequency ranges to provide a smooth transition between horns.

  6. The introduction of the national maximum speed limit occurred at one time, and applied nationwide, which led to the large easily observed change in Fig.

  7. Since the invention of insulators, there's no actual danger. After all, vehicles traveling at identical speeds in the same direction cannot crash into each other, and will never overtake.

  8. Wente of Western Electric , [9] multicell horns have been used in loudspeakers since to address the problem of directivity at higher frequencies, and they provide excellent low frequency loading.

  9. Henricksen and Mark S. There are no known functioning examples left. The electrical sound signal is applied to the electrodes creating an electrical field; depending on the polarity of this field, the diaphragm is drawn towards one of the plates.

  10. The practical limitation of horn length is explicitly not addressed by the theory of OSWG. They do not need to deliver significant electric current , which further limits the electrical hazard to the wearer in case of fault. Yet a head-on crash between two vehicles traveling at 40 mph is far more lethal to both drivers than one between a 40 mph and a 20 mph vehicle.

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